Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Significant Accounting Policies|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Management will base the use of estimates on (a) various assumptions that consider its experience, (b) the Company’s projections regarding future operations and (c) general financial market and local and general economic conditions. Actual amounts could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all demand deposits, cashier’s checks, money market accounts and certificates of deposit with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. We maintain our cash and cash equivalents at financial institutions. The combined account balances typically exceed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insurance coverage, and, as a result, there is a concentration of credit risk related to amounts on deposit. We believe that the risk is not significant.
Allowance for Loan Loss
The Company reviews each loan on a quarterly basis and evaluates the borrower’s ability to pay the monthly interest, the borrower’s likelihood of executing the original exit strategy, as well as the loan-to-value (LTV) ratio. Based on the analysis, management determines if any provisions for impairment of loans should be made and whether any loan loss reserves are required.
Fair Value Measurements
The framework for measuring fair value provides a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under FASB ASC 820 are described as follows:
Level 1Inputs to the valuation methodology are unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active markets that the Company can access.
Level 2Inputs to the valuation methodology include:
If the asset or liability has a specified (i.e., contractual) term, the Level 2 input must be observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.
Property and Equipment
Land and building acquired in December 2016 to serve as the Company’s office facilities is stated at cost. The building is being depreciated using the straight-line method over its estimated useful life of 40 years. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. The Company relocated its entire operations to this property in March 2019.
Impairment of long-lived assets
The Company continually monitors events or changes in circumstances that could indicate carrying amounts of long-lived assets may not be recoverable. When such events or changes in circumstances occur, the Company assesses the recoverability of long-lived assets by determining whether the carrying value of such assets will be recovered through undiscounted expected future cash flows. If the total of the undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of these assets, the Company recognizes an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair market value of the assets.
Deferred Financing Costs
Costs incurred in connection with the Company’s revolving credit facilities, described in Note 8 -- Line of Credit and Mortgage Payable, were amortized over the term of the applicable facility using the straight-line method. Unamortized deferred financing costs relating to the Company’s $35 million credit facility were expensed when the facility was terminated on June 25, 2019 and the entire balance due was paid in full.
Costs incurred by the Company in connection with the public offering of its unsecured, unsubordinated notes, described in Note 10 – Notes Payable, are being amortized over the term of the respective Notes.
Interest income from the Company’s loan portfolio is earned, over the loan period and is calculated using the simple interest method on principal amounts outstanding. Generally, the Company’s loans provide for interest to be paid monthly in arrears. The Company does not accrue interest income on mortgages receivable that are more than 90 days past due.
Origination fee revenue, generally 2% – 5% of the original loan principal amount, is collected at loan funding and is recognized ratably over the contractual life of the loan in accordance with ASC 310.
The Company believes it qualifies as a REIT for federal income tax purposes and operates accordingly. It made the election to be taxed as a REIT on its 2017 Federal income tax return. The Company’s qualification as a REIT depends on its ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual investment and operating results, various complex requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, relating to, among other things, the sources of its income, the composition and values of its assets, its compliance with the distributions requirements applicable to REITs and the diversity of ownership of its outstanding capital stock. So long as it qualifies as a REIT, the Company, generally, will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on its taxable income distributed to its shareholders. However, if it fails to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year and does not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, it will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates and may also be subject to various penalties and may be precluded from re-electing REIT status for the four taxable years following the year during in which it lost its REIT qualification.
The Company has adopted the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) ASC Topic 740-10 “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes.” The standard prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be
taken in a tax return and disclosure required. Under this standard, an entity may only recognize or continue to recognize tax positions that meet a “more likely than not” threshold. The Company recognizes interest and penalties, if any, related to unrecognized tax benefits in interest expense. The Company has determined that there are no uncertain tax positions requiring accrual or disclosure in the accompanying financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Earnings Per Share
Basic and diluted earnings per share are calculated in accordance with ASC 260 -- “Earnings Per Share.” Under ASC 260, basic earnings per share is computed by dividing income available to common shareholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. The computation of diluted earnings per share is similar to basic earnings per share, except that the denominator is increased to include the potential dilution from the exercise of stock options and warrants for common shares using the treasury stock method. The numerator in calculating both basic and diluted earnings per common share for each period is the reported net income.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-05, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Targeted Transition Relief.” This ASU allows entities to irrevocably elect the fair value option for certain financial assets previously measured at amortized cost upon adoption of ASU 2016-13, “Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments.” The Company plans to adopt both ASU 2016-13 and ASU 2019-05 effective January 1, 2020. The Company believes that the adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on its financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes.” This ASU modifies ASC 740 to remove certain exceptions and adds guidance to reduce complexity in certain areas. For companies that file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the standard is effective for
fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted but requires simultaneous adoption of all provisions of the new standard. The Company believes that the adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on its financial statements.
In June 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) No. 2018-07, “Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting,” which aligns the measurement and classification guidance for share-based payments to nonemployees with the guidance for share-based payments to employees, with certain exceptions. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2019 on a prospective basis. The Company's adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on its financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820).” ASU 2018-13 amends certain disclosure requirements regarding the fair value hierarchy of investments in accordance with GAAP, particularly the significant unobservable inputs used to value investments within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. The standard is effective on January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2018-13 to have a material impact on its financial statements.
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting standards if currently adopted would have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
Management has evaluated subsequent events through March 26, 2020 the date on which the financial statements were available to be issued. Based on the evaluation, no adjustments were required in the accompanying financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef