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The information in this preliminary Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to the securities has been filed with and
declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2)
 Registration No. 333-262859
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 17, 2024
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
(To Prospectus Dated February 25, 2022)
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_sachemcapital-4c.jpg]
$[•] Principal Amount
[•]% Notes due 2029
We are offering $[•] million in aggregate principal amount of [•]% notes due 2029, which we refer to as the “Notes.” The Notes will mature on June 30, 2029. We will pay interest on the Notes on March 30, June 30, September 30 and December 30 of each year they are outstanding, beginning on September 30, 2024. We may redeem the Notes in whole or in part at any time or from time to time, at the redemption price set forth under the section titled “Description of the Notes — Optional Redemption” in this Prospectus Supplement. In addition, holders of the Notes can require us to repurchase some or all of the Notes at a purchase price equal to 100% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the repurchase date upon the occurrence of a “Change of Control Repurchase Event” ​(as defined herein). The Notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.
The Notes will be our direct unsecured obligations and, upon issuance, rank pari passu to all our currently outstanding unsecured unsubordinated indebtedness, any unsecured unsubordinated indebtedness that we may issue in the future and all other unsecured liabilities. At March 31, 2024, the aggregate principal amount of our outstanding unsubordinated unsecured indebtedness was approximately $288.4 million. Our general unsecured liabilities were approximately $11.9 million at March 31, 2024.
As the Notes are not secured by any of our assets; they are effectively subordinated to all our existing and future secured indebtedness (including indebtedness that is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant security), to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness. At March 31, 2024, the aggregate outstanding amount of our secured liabilities was approximately $89.2 million.
The repayment of the Notes is not guaranteed. In any liquidation, dissolution, bankruptcy or other similar proceeding, the holders of our existing or future secured indebtedness may assert rights against the assets securing that indebtedness to receive full payment of their indebtedness before the assets may be used to pay other creditors, including the holders of the Notes.
We intend to list the Notes on the NYSE American under the trading symbol “SACH29,” and we expect trading to commence within 30 days of the original issue date. The Notes are expected to trade “flat.” This means that purchasers will not pay, and sellers will not receive, any accrued and unpaid interest on the Notes that is not included in the trading price. Currently, there is no public market for the Notes and there can be no assurance that one will develop.
Investing in the Notes involves significant risks. Please read “Risk Factors” on page S-23 of this Prospectus Supplement, on page 15 of the accompanying Base Prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this Prospectus Supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved the Notes or determined if this Prospectus Supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

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You should read this Prospectus Supplement in conjunction with the accompanying Base Prospectus, including any supplements and amendments thereto and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein. This Prospectus Supplement is qualified by reference to the accompanying Base Prospectus, except to the extent that the information in this Prospectus Supplement supersedes the information contained in the accompanying Base Prospectus. This Prospectus Supplement is not complete without and may not be delivered or utilized except in connection with, the accompanying Base Prospectus, including any supplements and amendments thereto.
Per Note
Total(1)
Public offering price $ 1,000.00 $     
Underwriting discount $ 20.00 $
Proceeds, before expenses, to us $ 980.00 $
(1)
Total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding underwriting discounts and commissions, are estimated to be approximately $[•].
THE NOTES ARE NOT DEPOSITS OR OTHER OBLIGATIONS OF A BANK AND ARE NOT INSURED BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCY.
Delivery of the Notes offered hereby, in book-entry form only through The Depository Trust Company, will be made on or about June [•], 2024.
Sole Book-Running Manager
Oppenheimer & Co. Inc.
Prospectus Supplement dated June [•], 2024

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About This Prospectus Supplement
You should carefully read this entire Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus, including the information included and referred to under “Risk Factors” below and in the accompanying Base Prospectus, the information incorporated by reference in this Prospectus Supplement and in the accompanying Base Prospectus, and the financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this Prospectus Supplement and in the accompanying Base Prospectus, before making an investment decision.
This Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus form part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. This document contains two parts. The first part consists of this Prospectus Supplement, which provides you with specific information about this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying Base Prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus. The second part, the accompanying Base Prospectus, provides more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer only to the “Prospectus,” we are referring to both parts combined. This Prospectus Supplement may add, update, or change information contained in the accompanying Base Prospectus. To the extent that any statement we make in this Prospectus Supplement is inconsistent with statements made in the accompanying Base Prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, the statements made in this Prospectus Supplement will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in the accompanying Base Prospectus and such documents incorporated by reference herein and therein.
This Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus relate to the offering of the Notes. Before buying any Notes, we urge you to carefully read this Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein and therein by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision. This Prospectus Supplement may add, update, or change information in the accompanying Base Prospectus.
You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this Prospectus Supplement, the accompanying Base Prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not making an offer to sell the Notes in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this Prospectus Supplement, the accompanying Base Prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should carefully read this entire Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus, including the information included and referred to under “Risk Factors” below, the information incorporated by reference in this Prospectus Supplement and in the accompanying Base Prospectus, and the financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in the accompanying Base Prospectus, before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the section of this Prospectus Supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
This Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus contain summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been or will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this Prospectus Supplement is a part or as exhibits to documents incorporated by reference herein, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.” We note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreement, and should not be deemed to be a
 
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representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
The industry and market data and other statistical information contained in the documents we incorporate by reference are based on our own estimates, independent publications, government publications, reports by market research firms or other published independent sources, and, in each case, are believed by us to be reasonable estimates. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we have not independently verified the information.
Securities offered pursuant to the registration statement to which this Prospectus Supplement relates may only be offered and sold if not more than three years have elapsed since the initial effective date of the registration statement, subject to the extension of this period in compliance with applicable SEC rules.
All references in this Prospectus Supplement to “us,” “we,” or “our,” are references to Sachem Capital Corp. and its predecessor, Sachem Capital Partners, LLC, or SCP, unless specified otherwise.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
The information below is only a summary of more detailed information included elsewhere in or incorporated by reference in this Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus. This summary may not contain all the information that is important to you or that you should consider before deciding to purchase any of our securities, including the Notes. Please carefully read this entire Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus, including the risk factors, as well as the information incorporated by reference in this Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus.
Company Overview
We are a Connecticut-based real estate finance company that specializes in originating, underwriting, funding, servicing and managing a portfolio of short-term (i.e., three years or less) loans secured by first mortgage liens on real property. From our inception in December 2010, through our initial public offering, in February 2017, we operated as a limited liability company. On February 9, 2017, we completed our initial public offering (the “IPO”), the primary purpose of which was to raise equity capital to fund mortgage loans and expand our mortgage loan portfolio and to diversify our ownership so that we could qualify, for federal income tax purposes, as a real estate investment trust, or REIT. We believe that, since consummation of the IPO, we meet all the requirements to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes and elected to be taxed as a REIT beginning with our 2017 tax year. As a REIT, we are entitled to claim deductions for distributions of taxable income to our shareholders thereby eliminating any corporate tax on such taxable income. Any taxable income not distributed to shareholders is subject to tax at the regular corporate tax rates and may also be subject to a 4% excise tax to the extent it exceeds 10% of our total taxable income. To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute each year at least 90% of our taxable income. As a REIT, we may also be subject to federal excise taxes and state taxes.
We have elected, and may elect in the future, to treat certain of our existing or newly created corporate subsidiaries as taxable REIT subsidiaries (“TRSs”). In general, a TRS may hold assets that we cannot hold directly and generally may engage in any real estate or non-real estate related business. The TRSs generate income, resulting in federal and state income tax liability for these entities.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe our competitive strengths include:

History of successful operations.   We commenced operations as a limited liability company in December 2010 with three investors and limited equity capital. Since our inception through March 31, 2024, we have funded approximately 2,013 mortgage loans having an aggregate gross principal amount of approximately $1.1 billion. Immediately prior to the IPO, we had approximately 155 investors and approximately $27.0 million of members’ equity. At March 31, 2024, we had shareholders’ equity of approximately $237.4 million. Through March 31, 2024, we raised approximately $221.2 million (gross proceeds) in equity capital and approximately $288.4 million (gross proceeds) of debt capital. Similarly, since the IPO, our mortgage loan portfolio has grown from $33.8 million to $490.7 million at March 31, 2024. In addition, at March 31, 2024, we had approximately $18.4 million of cash and cash equivalents.

Long-standing relationships.   We have ongoing relationships with many of our borrowers. At March 31, 2024, our loan portfolio included 120 loans having an aggregate principal balance of approximately $148.3 million that were extensions of prior loans. Customers are also a referral source for new borrowers. As long as these borrowers remain active real estate investors, they provide us with an advantage in securing new business and help us maintain a pipeline to attractive new opportunities that may not be available to many of our competitors or to the general market.

Skilled and loyal workforce.   Our employees are multi-skilled professionals who have a strong “team” orientation, a “continuous process improvement” mentality, and an authentic desire to learn all aspects of our business and contribute wherever and however they are needed. Other than the retirement of three employees, we have had only one employee leave the Company in the last 24 months.

Knowledge of the market.   We have an intimate knowledge of the Connecticut real estate market, which enhances our ability to identify attractive opportunities and helps distinguish us from many of our
 
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competitors. We have also established relationships with locals in other markets, such as Naples, Florida and Orlando, Florida, to provide us with visibility, lending opportunities and local expertise.

Disciplined lending.   We seek to maximize our risk-adjusted returns, and preserve and protect capital, through our disciplined and credit-based approach. We utilize rigorous underwriting and loan closing procedures that include multiple checks and balances to evaluate the risks and merits of each potential transaction. We seek to protect and preserve capital by carefully evaluating the condition of the property, the location of the property, the value of the property and, where available, other forms of collateral.

Vertically integrated loan origination and asset management platform.   As a rule, our strategy is to service and manage the loans we originate until they are paid. We manage and control the loan process from origination through closing with our own personnel or independent third parties, including legal counsel and appraisers, with whom we have relationships. Together, these individuals constitute a team highly experienced in credit evaluation, underwriting and loan structuring. We also believe that our procedures and experience allow us to execute opportunities quickly and efficiently. Lastly, Urbane Capital, LLC, our subsidiary, further bolsters our portfolio management by giving us the in-house expertise to resolve troubled loans and to complete construction projects to maximize shareholder value.

Structuring flexibility.   As a small, non-bank real estate lender, we can move quickly and have more flexibility than traditional lenders to structure loans to suit the needs of our clients. Our ability to customize financing structures to meet borrowers’ needs is one of our key competitive strengths.
Market and Operational Challenges and Outlook for 2024
Despite a difficult commercial real estate and capital markets environment, our primary business objective for 2024 remains to grow our loan portfolio while protecting and preserving capital in a manner that provides for attractive risk-adjusted returns to our shareholders over the long term, principally through dividends. This optimism stems from our perception that the ongoing dislocation and turmoil in the credit markets and the banking sector will continue to fuel significant demand for our mortgage products. We intend to achieve this objective by continuing to focus on selectively originating, managing, and servicing a portfolio of first mortgage real estate loans designed to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns across a variety of market conditions and economic cycles. We believe that our strategy targeting larger commercial loans, higher-valued properties and financially stable and experienced sponsors and on developing relationships with large reputable brokers, to further our efforts to attract larger borrowers with better credit quality, has been critical to our ability to continue to operate profitably in this difficult lending environment. In addition, to drive additional operational excellence, we are committed to continuously review, assess, and upgrade our existing operational processes, from workflows and employee roles/responsibilities to decision trees and data collection forms. We believe that our ability to react quickly to the needs of borrowers, our flexibility in terms of structuring loans to meet the needs of borrowers, our knowledge of the primary real estate markets we lend in, our expertise in “hard money” lending and our focus on newly originated first mortgage loans, should enable us to achieve our primary objective. Finally, our small size allows us to remain flexible to take advantage of other real estate opportunities that may arise from time to time, whether they relate to the mortgage market or to direct or indirect investments in real estate.
Our strategy to achieve our objective includes the following:

capitalize on opportunities created by the long-term structural changes in the real estate lending market and the continuing lack of liquidity in the commercial and investment real estate markets;

take advantage of the prevailing economic environment and current economic, political and social trends that may impact real estate lending, as well as the outlook for real estate in general and particular asset classes;

remain flexible to capitalize on changing sets of investment opportunities that may be present in the various points of an economic cycle;

increase the size and quality of our mortgage loans and expand our geographic footprint to reduce our exposure to adverse market conditions that have a disproportionate impact on a single asset class or geographic area;
 
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maintain our status as a publicly – held company, subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which gives us immediate access to the public markets for much-needed capital; and

continue to operate to qualify as a REIT and for an exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”)
We believe that the following factors are the major challenges confronting us in 2024:
High interest rate environment.   The rates on our existing credit facilities, including the Churchill Facility, the Wells Fargo Loan and the NHB Mortgage (refinanced in February 2023) (as defined below), have all increased. The effective rate of Needham Bank Credit Facility was 8.25%, and Churchill Facility was 9.40% as of March 31, 2024. In addition, the interest rate on the September 2027 Notes, our last note offering in 2022, was 8%, the highest it has ever been. We expect interest rates to remain elevated for the remainder of 2024.
Geopolitical concerns.   2023 and early 2024 was marked with various geopolitical concerns, including the ongoing conflicts between Ukraine and Russia and Israel and Hamas, heightened tensions between the U.S. and China regarding Taiwan and global trade, Iran’s and North Korea’s continued pursuit of nuclear weapons and Iran’s ongoing attempts to destabilize the Middle East. These conflicts have led to market volatility, spikes in commodity prices, supply chain interruptions, heightened cybersecurity concerns and general concerns that they might lead to unconventional warfare. The true ramifications of these conflicts and their impact on the markets and our business operations, specifically our borrowers and real estate prices, are not fully known at this time. Our business is purely domestic, but we are impacted by market volatility and cybersecurity is a concern for all businesses.
Increased competition from private lenders.   In the past, our primary competitors were other non-bank real estate finance companies and banks and other financial institutions. More recently, we are encountering competition from private equity funds, hedge funds and other specialty finance entities funded by investment banks, asset managers, private equity funds and hedge funds. The primary driver for these new market participants, we believe, is their need to find higher yielding investments. Given that residential transition loan gross yields are in the 12% – 15% range, many institutions are deploying capital into credit products where the returns are nearing equity investments. These entities, in general, are well-funded, have relatively easy access to capital and are aggressive in terms of pricing. In addition, competition is becoming more of a factor as we implement our strategy to focus on larger loans and more sophisticated borrowers. Given recent developments regarding mid-size regional banks, we believe competition from traditional banks will continue to abate in 2024 rather than increase. As traditional banks exit the lending market, non-traditional lenders, such as non-bank real estate companies, hedge funds, private equity funds and insurance companies, are likely to step into the void. Our principal competitive advantages include our experience, our reputation, our size and our ability to address the needs of borrowers in terms of timing and structuring loan transactions.
Property value fluctuations.   We monitor a variety of indicators to track property value trends, including the Federal Funds Rate, U.S Treasury data, days-on-market, pending sales, NAHB’s Housing Market Index and the Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey. Additionally, we almost always utilize a third-party valuation including, but not limited to, appraisals, broker price opinions, and automated valuation models, to assist in both our underwriting and monitoring of our portfolio assets. By judiciously relying on our indicators and continuing to make sound underwriting decisions, we are poised to respond quickly if asset valuations begin to decline. Nevertheless, property value market cycles could have an adverse impact on our operations and financial condition. Over the past three years, the commercial real estate market throughout most of the United States has experienced a significant decline in value, which has led to a corresponding increase in the rate of loan defaults and foreclosures. As a result, many REITs have been forced to record additional allowances for credit losses and write-downs of real estate assets. Although most of our loans are secured by residential properties, approximately 36.5% of our portfolio is secured by commercial real estate and, hence, we are not immune from this trend. On a quarterly basis, we evaluate the allowance for credit losses by analyzing several market indicators indicated above and adjust accordingly. Our total allowance for credit losses related to loans as of March 31, 2024 was approximately $10.6 million. Our total provisions for credit losses related to loans for the three-month period ended March 31, 2024 were approximately
 
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$1.3 million. Similarly, the decline in commercial real estate values has led to an increase in our foreclosure rates. At March 31, 2024, approximately 20.5% of the loans in our portfolio were in foreclosure proceedings compared to 18.0% at December 31, 2023 and 9.0% at December 31, 2022. We expect these trends to continue through the balance of 2024.
Increased operating expenses and capital outlay.   Our operating expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are higher than they were in 2023 due to our higher debt load, as well as higher borrowing rates. In addition, we have two tranches of unsecured Notes coming due in 2024. The refinancing of these Notes will likely carry a higher interest rate, ultimately increasing interest expenses even further. Finally, our other expenses increased primarily from increases in federal tax liabilities and increases in general and administrative expenses.
Unfunded commitments.   Most of our loans are funded in full at closing. However, where all or a portion of the loan proceeds are to be used to fund the costs of renovating or constructing improvements on the property, only a portion of the loan may be funded at closing. At March 31, 2024, our mortgage loan portfolio included 93 loans with future funding obligations, in the aggregate principal amount of $95.5 million, compared 154 loans with future funding obligations, in the aggregate principal amount of approximately $108.1 million at March 31, 2023. Advances under construction loans are funded against requests supported by all required documentation (including lien waivers) as and when needed to pay contractors and other costs of construction. To deal with these obligations, we are compelled to maintain higher cash balances, which could adversely impact our financial performance.
Despite these challenges, the changing dynamics of the real estate finance marketplace, the debt and equity markets, shocks to the financial system and challenging geopolitical developments, we continue to believe in the viability of our business model. We believe that there continues to be a significant market opportunity for a well-capitalized “hard money” lender to originate attractively priced loans to small- and mid-scale real estate developers with good collateral, particularly in markets where, traditionally, real estate values are stable and substandard properties are improved, rehabilitated, and renovated as well as under-developed markets that are experiencing rapid growth due to population shifts. We also believe developers will prefer to borrow from us rather than other lending sources because of flexibility in structuring loans to suit their needs, our lending criteria, which places greater emphasis on the value of the collateral rather than the property cash flow or credit of the borrower, and our ability to close loans quickly. Our goal is, and has always been, to continue to grow our mortgage loan portfolio and increase our loan profitability, while at the same time maintain or improve our existing underwriting and loan criteria. Specifically, we believe that the following factors will impact our performance in 2024.

Strong balance sheet.   At March 31, 2024, we had approximately $237.4 million of shareholders’ equity and total indebtedness for borrowed money of approximately $377.6 million (including deferred financing costs). Thus, our capital structure was approximately 60.3% debt and 39.7% equity compared to approximately 60.4% debt and 39.6% equity at December 31, 2023. We believe our debt-to-equity ratio is lower than most mortgage REITs. Our equity includes 2,108,957 shares of Series A Preferred Stock, which carries a dividend rate of 7.75% per annum.

Pricing power.   For the three months ended March 31, 2024, and 2023, the yield on our mortgage loan portfolio, inclusive of default interest, was 12.7% and 11.69%, respectively. (For this purpose, the yield only takes into account the stated interest rate on the mortgage note adjusted to the default rate, if applicable.) The pullback from the banking sector continues to provide demand for products and as a result we have the ability to maintain attractive pricing.

Access to capital.   As a public company subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we have access to the public markets for capital. Since the IPO through March 31, 2024, we raised approximately $509.6 million of gross proceeds through public offerings of our equity and debt securities. We used the net proceeds from these offerings to grow our business.

Liquidity.   In addition, to our capital raises through the public markets, we have other sources of liquidity: (i) a $200 million master repurchase financing facility (the “Churchill Facility”) with Churchill MRA Funding I LLC (“Churchill”), a subsidiary of Churchill Real Estate, a vertically integrated real estate finance company based in New York, New York; (ii) a margin loan account with Wells Fargo that allows us to borrow against our investment securities portfolio (the “Wells Fargo Loan”); and (iii) a
 
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$65 million revolving credit facility with Needham Bank, a Massachusetts co-operative bank, which can be increased up to $75 million (the “Needham Credit Facility”). As of March 31, 2024, there was approximately $25.9 million outstanding under the Churchill Facility and $35.0 million outstanding under the Needham Credit Facility. In addition, at March 31, 2024, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $18.4 million.

Management.   Our senior executive officers include John Villano, chief executive officer, president and interim chief financial officer. Other key personnel include a vice president – finance and operations, a senior vice president – asset management and a vice president – asset management. In addition, we have added personnel in operations, accounting and administration to accommodate the growth of our business. Although these new hires have resulted in increased compensation, they were and will continue to be necessary to accommodate our growth and to maintain our ability to continue to service our borrowers and manage our business without sacrificing quality.
Financing Strategy Overview
To continue to grow our business, we must increase the size of our loan portfolio, which requires that we use our existing working capital to fund new loans and raise additional capital either by selling shares of our capital stock or by incurring additional indebtedness. We do not have a policy limiting the amount of indebtedness that we may incur. Thus, our operating income in the future will depend on how much debt we incur and the spread between our cost of funds and the yield on our loan portfolio. Rising interest rates have an adverse impact on our business unless we can increase the rates on our loans to offset the increase in our cost of funds and to satisfy investor demand for yield. In addition, rapidly rising interest rates could have an unsettling effect on real estate values, which could compromise some of our collateral.
We do not have any formal policy limiting the amount of indebtedness we may incur, but we are limited to a 150% asset coverage ratio from our existing debt covenants. At March 31, 2024, our asset coverage ratio was 165.9%. Assuming we sell and issue Notes having an aggregate principal amount of $[•] million in this offering and we use the proceeds to repay in full the June 2024 Notes, our asset coverage ratio will be [•]% immediately after this offering. Depending on various factors we may, in the future, decide to take on additional debt to expand our mortgage loan origination activities to increase the potential returns to our shareholders. Although we have no pre-set guidelines in terms of leverage ratio, the amount of leverage we will deploy will depend on our assessment of a variety of factors, which may include the liquidity of the real estate market in which most of our collateral is located, employment rates, general economic conditions, the cost of funds relative to the yield curve, the potential for losses and extension risk in our portfolio, the gap between the duration of our assets and liabilities, our opinion regarding the creditworthiness of our borrowers, the value of the collateral underlying our portfolio, and our outlook for interest rates and property values. At March 31, 2024, debt represented approximately 60.3% of our total capital compared to 60.4 % at December 31, 2023. To prudently grow the business and satisfy the tax requirement to distribute 90% of our taxable income, we expect to maintain our current level of debt and look to reduce our cost of capital. We intend to maintain a modest amount of leverage for the sole purpose of financing our portfolio and not for speculating on changes in interest rates.
Our total outstanding indebtedness at March 31, 2024 was approximately $377.6 million, which included the Wells Fargo Loan balance of approximately $27.2 million, approximately $25.9 million outstanding under the Churchill Facility, approximately $1.1 million outstanding under the NHB Mortgage, $35.0 million outstanding under the Needham Credit Facility and approximately $288.4 million aggregate outstanding principal amount of five-year, unsecured unsubordinated notes, (the “Existing Notes”) as follows:

Approximately $40.3 million aggregate original principal amount, issued August 23, 2022, bearing interest at the rate of 8.00% per annum and maturing on September 30, 2027 (the “September 2027 Notes”), which trades on the NYSE American under the symbol “SCCG”;

$30.0 million aggregate original principal amount, issued May 11, 2022, bearing interest at the rate of 7.125% per annum and maturing on June 30, 2027 (the “June 2027 Notes”) and which trade on the NYSE American under the symbol “SCCF”;

Approximately $51.9 million aggregate original principal amount, issued March 9, 2022, bearing interest at the rate of 6.00% per annum and maturing on March 30, 2027 (the “March 2027 Notes”) and which trade on the NYSE American under the symbol “SCCE”;
 
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Approximately $51.8 million aggregate original principal amount, issued December 20, 2021, bearing interest at the rate of 6.00% per annum and maturing on December 30, 2026 (the “2026 Notes”) and which trade on the NYSE American under the symbol “SCCD”;

Approximately $56.4 million aggregate original principal amount, of which approximately $14.4 million was issued September 4, 2020, $14.0 million was issued October 23, 2020 and $28.0 million was issued December 22, 2020, bearing interest at the rate of 7.75% per annum and maturing on September 30, 2025 (the “2025 Notes”) and which trade on the NYSE American under the symbol “SCCC”. The 2025 Notes are prepayable beginning on September 4, 2022;

$34.5 million aggregate original principal amount, issued November 7, 2019, bearing interest at the rate of 6.875% per annum and maturing on December 30, 2024 (the “December 2024 Notes”) and which trade on the NYSE American under the symbol “SACC”; and

Approximately $23.7 million aggregate original principal amount, issued June 25, 2019, bearing interest at the rate of 7.125% per annum and maturing on June 30, 2024 (the “June 2024 Notes”) and which trade on the NYSE American under the symbol “SCCB”.
Each series of Existing Notes was issued pursuant to the Indenture, dated June 21, 2019, and a supplement thereto, which provides for the form and terms, including default provisions and cures, applicable to each series. All seven series of Notes are subject to (i) “Defeasance,” which means that, by depositing with a trustee an amount of cash and/or government securities sufficient to pay all principal and interest, if any, on such notes when due and satisfying any additional conditions required under the Indenture, we will be deemed to have been discharged from our obligations under such notes and (ii) an “Asset Coverage Ratio” requirement pursuant to which we may not (x) pay any dividends or make distributions in excess of 90% of our taxable income, (y) incur any indebtedness or (z) purchase any shares of our capital stock unless we have an “Asset Coverage Ratio” of at least 150% after giving effect to the payment of such dividend, the making of such distribution or the incurrence of such indebtedness. “Asset Coverage Ratio” means the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the value of our total assets relative to the aggregate amount of its indebtedness.
Under the terms of the Indenture, we may, at our option, at any time and from time to time, redeem Notes approximately two years after the date of their original issuance. As such, the June 2024 Notes, the December 2024 Notes, the 2025 Notes, the 2026 Notes and the March 2027 are all currently redeemable at our option. The June 2027 Notes will be redeemable in May 2024, and the September 2027 Notes will be redeemable in August 2024. In each case the redemption price is equal to 100% of the outstanding principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption. On and after any redemption date, interest will cease to accrue on the redeemed notes.
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the Notes offered under this Prospectus Supplement to repay in full the entire outstanding principal balance and accrued interest on the June 2024 Notes in the amount of approximately $24.1 million. However, we may also apply some or a portion of the balance of the net proceeds from the sale of the Notes to repay all or a portion of the approximately $34.5 million principal amount of December 2024 Notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon, which mature on December 30, 2024.
Our secured indebtedness as of March 31, 2024 includes the Churchill Facility, the Wells Fargo Loan, the NHB Mortgage and the Needham Credit Facility (each as described below).
Under the terms of the Churchill Facility, we have the right, but not the obligation, to sell mortgage loans to Churchill, and Churchill has the right, but not the obligation, to purchase those loans. In addition, we have the right and, in some instances the obligation, to repurchase those loans from Churchill. The amount that Churchill will pay for each mortgage loan it purchases will vary based on the attributes of the loan and various other circumstances but generally will not exceed 70% of the unpaid principal balance purchased. The repurchase price is calculated by applying an interest factor, as defined, to the purchase price of the mortgage loan. We also granted Churchill a first priority security interest on the mortgage loans sold to Churchill to secure our repurchase obligation. The cost of capital under the Churchill Facility is equal to the sum of (a) the greater of (i) 0.25% and (ii) the 90-day SOFR plus (b) 3% – 4%, depending on the aggregate principal amount of the mortgage loans held by Churchill at that time. Our obligations under the Churchill Facility are secured by a lien on the mortgage loans sold to Churchill. The Churchill Facility is also
 
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subject to various terms and conditions, including representations and warranties, covenants and agreements typically found in these types of financing arrangements, including a covenant that (A) prohibits us from (i) paying any dividend or make any distribution in excess of 90% of our taxable income, (ii) incurring any indebtedness or (iii) purchasing any shares of our capital stock, unless, in any case, we have an asset coverage ratio of at least 150%; and (B) requires us to maintain unencumbered cash and cash equivalents in an amount equal to or greater than 2.50% of the amount of our repurchase obligations. Churchill has the right to terminate the Churchill Facility at any time upon 180 days prior notice to us. At such time, we have an additional 180 days after termination to repurchase all the mortgage loans held by Churchill. We believe the Churchill Facility gives us the ability to raise capital as needed at a relatively low rate. It also gives us the flexibility to seek other sources of funding. At March 31, 2024, the amount outstanding under the Churchill Facility was approximately $25.9 million, which amount was accruing interest at an effective rate of 9.4% per annum.
The Wells Fargo Loan is secured by our portfolio of investment securities, which had a value of approximately $36.6 million at March 31, 2024. The outstanding balance on the Wells Fargo Loan of approximately $27.2 million bears interest at a rate equal to 1.75% below the prime rate. Other than increasing our borrowing costs under the Wells Fargo Loan, it is difficult to forecast what impact the elevated interest rate environment will have on our investment securities portfolio.
On February 28, 2023, we refinanced our mortgage loan from New Haven Bank with a new $1.66 million adjustable-rate mortgage loan from New Haven Bank (the “NHB Mortgage”). The new loan accrues interest at an initial rate of 5.75% per annum for the first 60 months. The interest rate will be adjusted on each of March 1, 2028 and March 1, 2033 to the then published 5-year Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston Classic Advance Rate, plus 1.75%. From April 1, 2023 through March 1, 2038, principal and interest is due and payable on a monthly basis. All payments under the new loan are amortized based on a 20-year amortization schedule. The unpaid principal amount of the loan and all accrued and unpaid interest are due and payable in full on March 1, 2038. The new loan is a non-recourse obligation, secured primarily by a first mortgage lien on our corporate headquarters located at 568 East Main Street, Branford, Connecticut.
On March 2, 2023, we entered into a Credit and Security Agreement (the “Credit Agreement”), with Needham Bank, a Massachusetts co-operative bank, as the administrative agent (the “Administrative Agent”) for the lenders party thereto (the “Lenders”) with respect to a $45 million revolving credit facility (the “Needham Credit Facility”). Under the Credit Agreement, we have the right to request an increase in the size of the Needham Credit Facility up to $75 million, subject to certain conditions, including the approval of the Lenders. As of September 8, 2023, the Needham Credit Facility was increased to $65 million. Loans under the Needham Credit Facility accrue interest at the greater of (i) the annual rate of interest equal to the “prime rate,” as published in the “Money Rates” column of The Wall Street Journal minus one-quarter of one percent (0.25%), and (ii) four and one-half percent (4.50%). All amounts borrowed under the Needham Credit Facility are secured by a first priority lien on virtually all our assets. Assets excluded from the lien include real estate owned by us (other than real estate acquired pursuant to foreclosure) and mortgages sold under the Churchill Facility. The Needham Credit Facility expires March 2, 2026, subject to our right to extend the term for one year upon the consent of the Administrative Agent and the Lenders, which consent cannot be unreasonably withheld, and so long as we are not in default and satisfy certain other conditions. All outstanding revolving loans, and accrued but unpaid interest thereon, are due and payable on the expiration date. We have the right to terminate the Needham Credit Facility at any time without premium or penalty by delivering written notice to the Administrative Agent at least ten (10) days prior to the proposed date of termination. The Needham Credit Facility is subject to other terms and conditions, including representations and warranties, covenants and agreements typically found in these types of financing arrangements, including a covenant that requires us to maintain: (A) a ratio of Adjusted EBITDA (as defined in the Credit Agreement) to Debt Service (as defined in the Credit Agreement) of less than 1.40 to 1.0, tested on a trailing-twelve-month basis at the end of each fiscal quarter, commencing with the quarter ended June 30, 2023; (B) a sum of cash, cash equivalents and availability under the facility equal to or greater than $10 million; and (C) an asset coverage ratio of at least 150%. At March 31, 2024, the amount outstanding under the Needham Credit Facility was approximately $35.0 million, which was accruing interest at an effective rate of 8.25% per annum.
Finally, from time-to-time we raise capital by selling our common shares and shares of our Series A Preferred Stock through our at-the market offering facility. During the three months ended March 31, 2024,
 
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under our at-the-market offering facility, we sold an aggregate of 568,711 common shares, realizing gross proceeds of approximately $2.1 million and 79,034 shares of its Series A Preferred Stock having an aggregate liquidation preference of $1,975,850, realizing gross proceeds of $1,587,954 (representing a discount of approximately 20% from the liquidation preference.) At March 31, 2024, approximately $48.6 million of common shares and $20.8 million of Series A Preferred Stock were available for future sale under the ongoing at-the-market offering.
REIT Qualification
We believe that we have qualified as a REIT since the consummation of the IPO and that it is in the best interests of our shareholders that we operate as a REIT. We made the election to be taxed as a REIT beginning with our 2017 tax year. As a REIT, we are required to distribute at least 90% of our taxable income to our shareholders on an annual basis. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain REIT status.
Our qualification as a REIT depends on our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual investment and operating results, various complex requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, relating to, among other things, the sources of our gross income, the composition and values of our assets, our compliance with the distribution requirements applicable to REITs and the diversity of ownership of our outstanding common shares. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain our qualification as a REIT.
So long as we qualify as a REIT, we, generally, will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income that we distribute currently to our shareholders. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year and do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate income tax rates and may be precluded from electing to be treated as a REIT for four taxable years following the year during which we lose our REIT qualification. Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income.
Distribution Policy
U.S. federal income tax law generally requires that a REIT distribute annually at least 90% of its taxable income. To the extent that it annually distributes less than 100% of its taxable income, the undistributed amount is taxed at regular corporate rates.
We intend to pay regular quarterly dividends in an amount necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT. Any distributions we make to our shareholders, the amount of such dividend and whether such dividend is payable in cash, our common shares or other property, or a combination thereof, is at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our actual results of operations and liquidity. These results and our ability to pay distributions will be affected by various factors, including the net interest and other income from our portfolio, our operating expenses and other expenditures and the restrictions and limitations imposed by the New York Business Corporation Law, referred to as the BCL, and any restrictions and/or limitations imposed on us by our creditors.
To comply with certain REIT qualification requirements, we will, before the end of any REIT taxable year in which we have accumulated earnings and profits attributable to a non-REIT year, declare a dividend to our shareholders to distribute such accumulated earnings and profits, referred to as a Purging Distribution. As of January 1, 2017, we had no accumulated earnings and profits.
The table below sets forth dividends paid to the holders of our common shares since we began operating as a REIT.
 
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Payment Date
Amount
Per Share
2024
April 16
$ 0.11
January 10≠
$ 0.11
2023
November 7
$ 0.11
August 11
$ 0.13
April 24
$ 0.13
January 10£ $ 0.13
2022
November 14
$ 0.13
July 28
$ 0.14
April 18
$ 0.12
January 10Ω
$ 0.12
2021
October 29
$ 0.12
July 30
$ 0.12
April 16
$ 0.12
January 8¥ $ 0.12
2020
November 4
$ 0.12
August 7
$ 0.12
January 27*
$ 0.12
2019
October 22
$ 0.12
July 29
$ 0.12
April 18
$ 0.12
January 10**
$ 0.17
2018
November 6
$ 0.12
July 27
$ 0.11
April 27***
$ 0.105
February 27****
$ 0.105
2017
November 17
$ 0.105
July 27
$ 0.105
April 27
$ 0.05

A portion represents a distribution of 2023 income.
£
A portion represents a distribution of 2022 income.

A portion represents a distribution of 2021 income.
¥
A portion represents a distribution of 2020 income.
*
A portion represents a distribution of 2019 income.
**
Represents a distribution of 2018 income.
***
A portion represents a distribution of 2017 income.
****
Represents a distribution of 2017 income.
 
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Summary Risk Factors
An investment in our securities involves various risks that you should consider carefully before investing in us. Many of these risks are discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as supplemented by other risk factors discussed in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed in 2024 and are discussed in this Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-23 and page 15, respectively. If any of these risks occur, our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, prospects and ability to make distributions to our shareholders could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you may lose a portion or your entire investment. These risks include:

The Notes will be unsecured and therefore are effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness we have incurred or may incur in the future.

The Notes will be structurally subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries.

The Indenture under which the Notes are issued contains limited protection for holders of the Notes.

An increase in market interest rates could result in a decrease in the value of the Notes.

An active trading market for the Notes may not develop or may not be sustained, which could limit your ability to sell your Notes and/or adversely impact the market price of the Notes.

The market price and trading volume of the Notes could be volatile and could decline, resulting in a substantial or complete loss of your investment.

We may choose to redeem the Notes when prevailing interest rates are relatively low.

We may not be able to repurchase the Notes upon a Change of Control Repurchase Event.

If we default on our obligations to pay our other indebtedness, we may not be able to make payments on the Notes.

A downgrade, suspension or withdrawal of the credit rating assigned by a rating agency to us or the Notes, if any, could cause the liquidity or market value of the Notes to decline significantly.

Our amount of debt outstanding will increase as a result of this offering, and if we default on our obligations under the Churchill Facility, the Wells Fargo Loan, the NHB Mortgage or Needham Credit Facility, we may suffer adverse consequences.

We will have broad discretion with respect to the use of the proceeds of this offering.

We employ leverage, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested any may increase the risk of investing in us.

Allowances for credit losses, provisions for credit losses and impairments remain a risk to our business.

A high level of defaults, particularly among larger mortgage loans, could have a material adverse impact on our business, operations and financial condition.

Difficult conditions in the mortgage and real estate markets, the financial markets and the economy generally have caused and may cause us to experience losses in the future.

Adverse geopolitical developments could have a material adverse impact on our business.

Further increases in interest rates could adversely affect our ability to generate income and pay dividends.

Prepayment rates can change, adversely affecting the performance of our assets.

Short-term loans may involve a greater risk of loss than traditional mortgage loans.

Many of our loans are not funded with interest reserves and our borrowers may be unable to pay the interest accruing on the loans when due, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition.
 
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Many of the properties securing our mortgage loans are not income producing, thus increasing the risks of delinquency and foreclosure.

Our due diligence may not reveal all the risks associated with a mortgage loan or the property that will be mortgaged to secure the loan, which could lead to losses.

Residential mortgage loans are subject to increased risks.

Our real estate assets are subject to risks particular to real property.

We may be adversely affected by the economies and other conditions of the markets in which we operate, particularly in Connecticut, where we have a high concentration of our loans.

The illiquidity of our loan portfolio could significantly impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in economic, financial, investment and other conditions.

Declining real estate valuations could result in impairment charges, the determination of which involves a significant amount of judgment on our part. Any impairment charge could have a material adverse effect on us.

A high level of defaults, particularly among larger loans, could have a material adverse impact on our business, operations and financial condition.

Competition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may adopt new or change our existing investment, financing, or hedging strategies and asset allocation and operational and management policies without shareholder consent, which may result in the purchase of riskier assets, the use of greater leverage or commercially unsound actions, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

In connection with our lending operations, we rely on third-party service providers to perform a variety of services, comply with applicable laws and regulations, and carry out contractual covenants and terms, the failure of which by any of these third-party service providers may adversely impact our business and financial results.

We may be adversely affected by deficiencies in foreclosure practices as well as related delays in the foreclosure process.

We may be unable to identify and complete acquisitions on favorable terms or at all, which may inhibit our growth and have a material adverse effect on us.

We are not obligated to contribute to a sinking fund to retire the Notes and the Notes are not guaranteed by a third-party.

The downgrade of the credit ratings of the U.S., any future downgrades of the credit ratings of the U.S. and the failure to resolve issues related to U.S. fiscal and debt policies may materially adversely affect our business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.

Inflation and rising interest rates could adversely impact our business, operations and financial condition.

Interruptions in our ability to provide our products and our service to our customers could damage our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

The occurrence of cyber-incidents, or a deficiency in our cybersecurity or in those of any of our third party service providers, could negatively impact our business by causing a disruption to our operations, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information or damage to our business relationships or reputation, all of which could negatively impact our business and results of operations.

The loss of key personnel, including our executive officers, could have a material adverse effect on us.

Our inability to recruit or retain qualified personnel or to maintain access to key third-party service providers and software developers could have a material adverse effect on us.
 
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The stock ownership limit imposed by our charter may inhibit market activity in our common shares and may restrict our business combination opportunities.

If we sell or transfer mortgage loans to a third party, including a securitization entity, we may be required to repurchase such loans or indemnify such third party if we breach representations and warranties.

We have significant unfunded commitments to existing borrowers. If we are unable to fund these commitments, we may be subject to borrower legal claims.

An inability to access external sources of capital on favorable terms or at all could limit our ability to execute our business and growth strategies.

If we are unable to leverage our assets to the extent we currently anticipate, the returns on certain of our assets could be diminished, which may limit or eliminate our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

Our outstanding indebtedness as of March 31, 2024 was approximately $377.6 million, which exposes us to the risk of default thereunder, among other risks.

Despite our current debt levels, we may still incur substantially more debt or take other actions which could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on our indebtedness when due and distributions to our shareholders.

Maintenance of our Investment Company Act exemption imposes limits on our operations.

Failure to qualify as a REIT would adversely affect our operations and ability to make distributions.

Qualifying as a REIT involves highly technical and complex provisions of the Code and therefore, in certain circumstances, may be subject to uncertainty.

Even though we qualify as a REIT, we, nevertheless, may be subject to taxes, which will reduce our cash flow.

The REIT distribution requirements could adversely affect our ability to grow our business and may force us to seek third-party capital during unfavorable market conditions.

Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends, which could depress the market price of our common shares if it is perceived as a less attractive investment.

We may in the future choose to pay dividends in the form of common shares, in which case shareholders may be required to pay income taxes in excess of the cash dividends they receive.

Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to liquidate or forgo otherwise attractive investment opportunities.

We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could reduce the market price of our common shares.

The market price and trading volume of our securities may be volatile.

We have not established a minimum dividend payment level for our common shareholders and there are no assurances of our ability to pay dividends to our common shareholders in the future.

Future offerings of preferred shares or debt securities would rank senior to our common shares upon liquidation and for dividend purposes, would dilute the interests of our common shareholders and may adversely affect the market price of our common shares.

An increase in interest rates may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

Your investment in and resulting interest in us may be diluted or lose value if we issue additional shares.
 
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Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are currently located at 568 East Main Street, Branford, Connecticut 06405 and our telephone number is (203) 433-4736. The URL for our website is www.sachemcapitalcorp.com. The information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into, and you must not consider the information to be a part of, this Prospectus Supplement.
Recent Developments
On June 5, 2024, our board of directors appointed Nicholas M. Marcello as our new Interim Chief Financial Officer (and principal accounting officer) effective immediately. He replaces John L. Villano in that capacity. Mr. Villano remains our President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board. Since September 2020, Mr. Marcello has held various roles at Sachem, including his most recent position as Vice President of Finance and Operations. Mr. Marcello’s responsibilities will continue to include overseeing our financial reporting, capital markets activities, portfolio management and investment, foreclosures, workouts, legal matters and regulatory compliance, and human resources. Prior to his tenure at Sachem, Mr. Marcello served as Vice President, Assistant Controller at Waypoint Real Estate Investments from 2017 to 2020. He began his career at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, working within the Investment Management Group where he performed tax and audit compliance. Mr. Marcello holds a B.S. from Providence College and a M.B.A and M.S. in Accounting from Northeastern University.
 
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Specific Terms of the Notes and the Offering
Issuer
Sachem Capital Corp.
Title of the Securities
[•]% Notes due 2029
Initial Aggregate Principal Amount Being
Offered
$[•] million
Initial Public Offering Price
100% of the aggregate principal amount.
Principal Payable at Maturity . . . . . . . .
100% of the aggregate principal amount; the principal amount of each Note will be payable on its stated maturity date at the office of the trustee, paying agent, registrar and transfer agent for the Notes or at such other office in New York, New York as we may designate.
Listing
We intend to list the Notes on the NYSE American under the trading symbol “SACH29” and expect trading to commence within 30 days of the Original Issue Date.
Private Rating of the Notes
BBB+ from Egan-Jones Ratings Company. An explanation of the significance of ratings may be obtained from the rating agency. Generally, rating agencies base their ratings on such material and information, and such of their own investigations, studies and assumptions, as they deem appropriate. The rating of the Notes should be evaluated independently from similar ratings of other securities. A credit rating of a security is paid for by the issuer and is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and may be subject to review, revision, suspension, reduction or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating agency. See “Risk Factors – A downgrade, suspension or withdrawal of the credit rating assigned by a rating agency to us or the Notes, if any, could cause the liquidity or market value of the Notes to decline significantly.”
Interest Rate
[•]% per year
Day Count Basis
360-day year of twelve 30-day months
Original Issue Date
June [•], 2024.
Stated Maturity Date
June 30, 2029
Date Interest Starts to Accrue
Original Issue Date
Interest Payment Dates
Every March 30, June 30, September 30, and December 30, beginning September 30, 2024. If an interest payment date falls on a non-business day, the applicable interest payment will be made on the next business day and no additional interest will accrue because of such delayed payment.
Interest Periods
The initial interest period will be the period from and including the Original Issue Date to, but excluding, the initial interest payment date, and the subsequent interest periods will be the periods
 
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from and including an interest payment date to, but excluding, the next interest payment date or the stated maturity date, as applicable.
Regular Record Dates for Interest
March 15, June 15, September 15, and December 15, beginning September 15, 2024.
Specified Currency
U.S. Dollars
Place of Payment
New York City
Ranking of Notes
The Notes will be our direct unsecured obligations and will rank:

Pari passu with, which means equal to, all outstanding and future unsecured unsubordinated indebtedness issued by us, including the approximately $288.4 million aggregate principal amount of unsecured unsubordinated five-year notes currently outstanding. The Notes will also rank pari passu with our general liabilities, which consist of trade and other payables, including any outstanding dividend payable, interest and debt fees payable, vendor payables and accrued expenses such as auditor fees, legal fees, director fees, advances from borrowers, etc. In total, these general liabilities were approximately $11.9 million as of March 31, 2024.

Senior to any of our future indebtedness that expressly provides it is subordinated to the Notes. As of the date of this Prospectus Supplement, we do not have outstanding debt that is subordinated to the Notes and do not currently intend to issue indebtedness that expressly provides that it is subordinated to the Notes. Therefore, the Notes, as currently contemplated, will not be senior to any indebtedness or obligations.

Effectively subordinated to all our existing and future secured indebtedness (including indebtedness that is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant a security interest), to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness. At March 31, 2024, the aggregate outstanding amount of our secured indebtedness was approximately $89.2 million, consisting of approximately $25.9 million outstanding under the Churchill Facility, approximately $27.2 million outstanding under the Wells Fargo Loan, $35.0 million outstanding under the Needham Credit Facility, and $1.1 million outstanding under the NHB Mortgage. In any liquidation, dissolution, bankruptcy or other similar proceeding, the holders of our existing or
 
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future secured indebtedness may assert rights against the assets pledged to secure their indebtedness in order to receive full payment of their indebtedness before those assets may be used to pay other creditors, including the holders of the Notes, and any assets of our subsidiaries will not be directly available to satisfy the claims of our creditors, including holders of the Notes.

Structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other obligations of any of our subsidiaries and financing vehicles since the Notes are obligations exclusively of Sachem Capital Corp. and not of any of our subsidiaries. Structural subordination means that creditors of a parent entity are subordinate to creditors of a subsidiary entity with respect to the subsidiary’s assets.
Except as described under the captions “Description of the Notes – Events of Default” and “− Merger or Consolidation” in this Prospectus Supplement, the Indenture does not contain any provisions that give holders of the Notes protection in the event we issue a large amount of debt or we are acquired by another entity.
Denominations
We will issue the Notes in minimum denominations of $2,000.00 and integral multiples of $1,000.00 in excess thereof.
Business Day
Each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday that is not a day on which banking institutions in New York City are authorized or required by law or executive order to close.
Optional Redemption
We may redeem the Notes in whole or in part at any time, or from time to time, at the redemption price equal to the greater of the following amounts, plus, in each case, accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the redemption date: (1) 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed or (2) the sum of the present values of the remaining scheduled payments of principal and interest (exclusive of accrued and unpaid interest to the date of redemption) on the Notes to be redeemed, discounted to the redemption date on a semi-annual basis (assuming a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) using the applicable Treasury Rate (as defined) plus 50 basis points; provided, however,
(i)
if we redeem any Notes on or after June [•], 2026 through June [•], 2027, the redemption price for the Notes will be equal to [•]% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest,
 
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if any, to, but excluding, the date of redemption;
(ii)
if we redeem any Notes on or after June [•], 2027 through June [•], 2028, the redemption price for the Notes will be equal to [•]% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of redemption; and
(iii)
if we redeem any Notes on or after June [•], 2028, the redemption price for the Notes will be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of redemption
provided further, however, that no partial redemption shall reduce the portion of the principal amount of a Note not redeemed to less than $2,000.
You may be prevented from exchanging or transferring the Notes during the fifteen-day period ending on the date of the mailing of the notice of redemption if they have been selected for redemption. In case any Notes are to be redeemed in part only, the redemption notice will provide that, upon surrender of such Note, you will receive, without a charge, a new Note or Notes of authorized denominations representing the principal amount of your remaining unredeemed Notes.
Any exercise of our option to redeem the Securities will be done in compliance with the Indenture and the Investment Company Act, to the extent applicable.
If we redeem only some of the Notes, the trustee or, with respect to the global securities, The Depository Trust Corporation (see Form of Notes below) will determine the method for selection of the Notes to be redeemed, in accordance with the Indenture and the Investment Company Act and the rules of any national securities exchange on which the Notes are listed or any quotation system on which the Notes are quoted. Unless we default in payment of the redemption price, on and after the date of redemption, interest will cease to accrue on the Notes called for redemption.
Sinking Fund
The Notes will not be subject to any sinking fund (i.e., no amounts will be set aside by us to ensure repayment of the Notes at maturity). As a result, our ability to repay the Notes at maturity will depend on our financial condition on the date that we are required to repay the Notes.
 
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Offer to repurchase upon a change of control repurchase event.
If a Change of Control Repurchase Event (as defined in the section titled “Description of the Notes” in this Prospectus Supplement) occurs prior to maturity, holders will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase for cash some or all the Notes at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the outstanding principal amount of the Notes being repurchased plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the repurchase date.
Defeasance
The Notes are subject to defeasance by us. “Defeasance” means that, by depositing with a trustee an amount of cash and/or government securities sufficient to pay all principal and interest, if any, on the Notes when due and satisfying any additional conditions required under the Indenture relating to the Notes, we will be deemed to have been discharged from our obligations under the Notes.
Covenant Defeasance
The Notes are subject to covenant defeasance by us. In the event of a “covenant defeasance,” upon depositing such funds and satisfying similar conditions discussed below we would be released from the restrictive covenants under the Indenture relating to the Notes. The consequence to the holders of the Notes is that, while they no longer benefit from the restrictive covenants under the Indenture, and while the Notes may not be accelerated for any reason, the holders of Notes nonetheless could look to us for repayment of the Notes if there were a shortfall in the funds deposited with the trustee or the trustee is prevented from making the payment.
Form of Notes
The Notes will be represented by global securities that will be deposited and registered in the name of The Depository Trust Corporation (“DTC”) or its nominee. This means that, except in limited circumstances, you will not receive certificates for the Notes. Beneficial interests in the Notes will be represented through book-entry accounts of financial institutions acting on behalf of beneficial owners as direct and indirect participants in DTC. Investors may elect to hold their interests in the Notes through either DTC, if they are a participant, or indirectly through organizations that are participants in DTC.
Trustee, Paying Agent, Registrar, and Transfer Agent
U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association (as successor in interest to U.S. Bank, N.A.)
Asset Coverage Covenant
We agree that for the period of time during which the Notes are outstanding, we will not pay any dividends or make distributions in excess of 90% of our taxable income, incur any indebtedness or
 
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purchase any shares of our capital stock unless we have an “Asset Coverage Ratio” of at least 150% after giving effect to the incurrence of such indebtedness and the application of the net proceeds therefrom or after taking into account the purchase price for such shares, as the case may be. “Asset Coverage Ratio” means the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the value of our total assets bears to the aggregate amount of our indebtedness (including the aggregate of the involuntary liquidation preference of redeemable preferred stock, if any).
Events of Default
If an event of default (as described in the section titled “Description of the Notes” in this Prospectus Supplement) occurs with respect to the Notes, the principal amount of the Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest, may be declared immediately due and payable subject to the conditions set forth in the Indenture governing the Notes.
Further Issuances
We may issue additional debt securities under the Indenture with terms different from the Notes and, without the consent of the holders thereof, issue additional Notes. If we issue additional debt securities, these additional debt securities could rank higher in priority of payment or, unlike the Notes, be secured by a lien on some or all our assets.
Global Clearance and Settlement
Procedures
Interests in the Notes will trade in DTC’s Same Day Funds Settlement System, and any permitted secondary market trading activity in such Notes will, therefore, be required by DTC to be settled in immediately available funds. Neither we nor U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association (as successor in interest to U.S. Bank, N.A.) or us will have any responsibility for the performance by DTC or its participants or indirect participants of their respective obligations under the rules and procedures governing their operations.
Risk Factors
Investing in the Notes involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks described under “Risk Factors” in this Prospectus Supplement, the accompanying Base Prospectus and our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q as well as the other information contained or incorporated by reference in this Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus before deciding to invest in the Notes.
Use of Proceeds
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the Notes offered under this Prospectus Supplement to repay in full the entire outstanding principal balance and accrued interest on the June 2024 Notes in the amount of approximately $24.1 million,
 
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and the balance for working capital and general corporate purposes, i.e., to fund new real estate loans secured by first mortgage liens. However, we may also apply some or a portion of the balance of the net proceeds from the sale of the Notes to repay all or a portion of the approximately $34.5 million principal amount of December 2024 Notes plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon, which mature on December 30, 2024.
 
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Risk Factors
Investing in the Notes involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks referenced below and described in the documents incorporated by reference in this Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying Base Prospectus, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of the Notes could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This Prospectus Supplement and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks referenced below and described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including (i) our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference into this Prospectus Supplement, (ii) our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2024 and (iii) other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this Prospectus Supplement.
Risks Related to the Notes
The Notes will be unsecured and therefore are effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness we have incurred or may incur in the future.
The Notes will not be secured by any of our assets. As a result, the Notes will be effectively subordinated to all our existing secured indebtedness as well as any secured indebtedness that we may incur in the future, or any indebtedness that is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant a security interest, to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness. As of March 31, 2024, we had approximately $288.4 million aggregate principal amount of Existing Notes outstanding, which are unsecured. In addition, at March 31, 2024, we had approximately $89.2 million of indebtedness that was secured by some of our assets. In any liquidation, dissolution, bankruptcy or other similar proceeding, the holders of any of our existing or future secured indebtedness may assert rights against the assets pledged to secure that indebtedness in order to receive full payment of their indebtedness before the assets may be used to pay other creditors, including the holders of the Notes.
The Notes will be structurally subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries.
The Notes will be obligations exclusively of Sachem Capital Corp. and not any of our subsidiaries. In addition, the Notes will not be guaranteed by any affiliate or unrelated third party. None of the assets of our subsidiaries will be directly available to satisfy the claims of holders of the Notes. Except to the extent we are a creditor with recognized claims against our subsidiaries, all claims of creditors of our subsidiaries will have priority over our equity interests in such entities (and therefore the claims of our creditors, including holders of the Notes) with respect to the assets of such entities. Even if we are recognized as a creditor of one or more of these entities, our claims would still be effectively subordinated to any security interests in the assets of any such entity and to any indebtedness or other liabilities of any such entity senior to our claims. Consequently, the Notes will be structurally subordinated to all indebtedness and other liabilities of any of our subsidiaries. In addition, our subsidiaries and these entities may incur substantial indebtedness in the future, all of which would be structurally senior to the Notes.
The Indenture under which the Notes are issued contains limited protection for holders of the Notes.
The Indenture under which the Notes are issued offers limited protection to holders of the Notes. The terms of the Indenture and the Notes do not restrict our ability to engage in, or otherwise be a party to, a variety of corporate transactions, circumstances or events that could have a material adverse impact on your investment in the Notes. In particular, except in limited circumstances, the terms of the Indenture and the Notes do not restrict our ability to:

issue securities or otherwise incur additional indebtedness or other obligations, including (1) any indebtedness or other obligations that would be equal in right of payment to the Notes, (2) any
 
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indebtedness or other obligations that would be secured and therefore rank effectively senior in right of payment to the Notes to the extent of the values of the assets securing such debt, (3) indebtedness that we incur that is guaranteed by one or more of our subsidiaries and which therefore is structurally senior to the Notes and (4) securities, indebtedness or obligations issued or incurred by our subsidiaries that would be senior to our equity interests in those entities and therefore rank structurally senior to the Notes with respect to the assets of these entities;

pay dividends on, or purchase or redeem or make any payments in respect of, capital stock or other securities ranking junior in right of payment to the Notes, including subordinated indebtedness;

sell assets (other than certain limited restrictions on our ability to consolidate, merge or sell all or substantially all our assets);

enter into transactions with affiliates;

create liens or enter into sale and leaseback transactions;

make investments; or

create restrictions on the payment of dividends or other amounts to us from our subsidiaries.
Similarly, the terms of the Indenture and the Notes do not protect holders of the Notes in the event that we experience changes (including significant adverse changes) in our financial condition, results of operations or credit ratings, if any, as long as we adhere to the Asset Coverage Covenant (see pages S-20 and S-43 of this Prospectus Supplement).
However, the Indenture does require us to offer to purchase the Notes in connection with a Change of Control Redemption Event (as defined in the Indenture). See “Description of the Notes” below.
Our ability to recapitalize, incur additional debt and take other actions that are not limited by the terms of the Notes may have important consequences for you as a holder of the Notes, including making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to the Notes or negatively affecting the trading value of the Notes.
Other debt we issue or incur in the future could contain more protections for its holders than the Indenture and the Notes, including additional covenants and events of default. For example, the Indenture under which the Notes are issued does not contain cross-default provisions. The issuance or incurrence of any indebtedness with incremental protections could affect the market for and trading levels and prices of the Notes.
An increase in market interest rates could result in a decrease in the value of the Notes.
In general, as market interest rates rise, notes bearing interest at a fixed rate decline in value. Consequently, if you purchase the Notes, and the market interest rates subsequently increase, the market value of your Notes may decline. We cannot predict the future level of market interest rates.
There is no existing trading market for the Notes, and, even if the NYSE American approves the listing of the Notes, an active trading market for the Notes may not develop, which could limit your ability to sell the Notes and/or the market price of the Notes.
The Notes will be a new issue of debt securities for which there initially will not be a trading market. Although all the Existing Notes are currently listed on the NYSE American, these securities are thinly traded. We cannot assure you that the Notes will be approved for listing on the NYSE American or that trading of the Notes will commence within 30 days of the original issue date.
Moreover, even if the listing of the Notes is approved, we cannot provide any assurances that an active trading market will develop or be maintained for the Notes or that you will be able to sell your Notes. If the Notes are traded after their initial issuance, they may trade at a discount from their initial offering price depending on prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities, our credit ratings, if any, general economic conditions, our financial condition, performance and prospects and other factors. The underwriters have advised us that they intend to make a market in the Notes, but they are not obligated to do so. The underwriters may discontinue any market-making in the Notes at any time at their sole discretion.
 
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In sum, we cannot assure you that the Notes will be approved for listing on the NYSE American, that a trading market will develop for the Notes, that you will be able to sell your Notes at a particular time or that the price you receive when you sell will be favorable. To the extent an active trading market does not develop, the liquidity and trading price for the Notes may be harmed. Accordingly, you may be required to bear the financial risk of an investment in the Notes indefinitely.
The market price and trading volume of the Notes could be volatile and could decline, resulting in a substantial or complete loss of your investment.
From January 1, 2024 through March 31, 2024, the trading prices on the Existing Notes (which have a principal amount of $25.00) have ranged from a low of $21.25 per note to a high of $25.31 per note. The Notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof and we expect to list the Notes for trading on the NYSE American under the symbol “SACH29”. The price at which the Notes will trade on the NYSE American will vary based on several factors. Perhaps the most important factor is interest rates. Since the Notes are fixed rate obligations, as interest rates increase, the market price of the Notes will decrease. If interest rates go down, the market price of the Notes will increase. We have no control over whether interest rates will increase or decrease. Another factor that could influence the market price of the Notes include our operating results and financial condition. If our ability to pay interest due on the Notes or to repay the Notes in full at maturity is questionable, the market price of the Notes is likely to decrease. Other factors include general economic conditions in the United States and globally as well as disruptive events such as pandemics, armed conflicts and natural disasters. As a result, investing in the Notes involves a high degree of risk and we cannot assure that even if the Notes are listed on the NYSE American that you will be able to recover your investment in the Notes.
We may choose to redeem the Notes when prevailing interest rates are relatively low.
We may choose to redeem some or all of the Notes at any time. If prevailing rates are lower at the time of redemption, you would not be able to reinvest the redemption proceeds in a comparable security at an effective interest rate as high as the interest rate on the Notes being redeemed. Our redemption right also may adversely impact your ability to sell the Notes as the optional redemption date or period approaches.
We may not be able to repurchase the Notes upon a Change of Control Repurchase Event.
Upon a Change of Control Repurchase Event, holders of the Notes may require us to repurchase for cash some or all the Notes at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes being repurchased plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but not including, the repurchase date. We may not be able to repurchase the Notes upon a Change of Control Repurchase Event because we may not have sufficient funds. We may not be able to borrow under our existing or future credit facilities to finance such a repurchase of the Notes. Our failure to purchase such tendered Notes upon the occurrence of such Change of Control Repurchase Event would cause an event of default under the Indenture governing the Notes and may trigger a cross-default under current or future agreements governing other indebtedness, which may result in the acceleration of such indebtedness requiring us to repay any such indebtedness immediately. Also, if the holders of the Notes exercise their right to require us to repurchase Notes upon a Change of Control Repurchase Event, the financial effect of any such repurchase could cause a default under our current and future debt instruments, even if the Change of Control Repurchase itself would not cause a default. If a Change of Control Repurchase Event were to occur, we may not have sufficient funds to repay any such accelerated indebtedness. See “Description of the Notes – Offer to Repurchase Upon a Change of Control Repurchase Event” in this Prospectus Supplement for more information.
If we default on our obligations to pay our other indebtedness, we may not be able to make payments on the Notes.
Any default under the agreements governing our existing indebtedness, including a default under indebtedness to which we may be a party that is not waived by the required lenders, and the remedies sought by the holders of such indebtedness could make us unable to pay principal and interest on the Notes and substantially decrease the market value of the Notes. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow
 
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and are otherwise unable to obtain funds necessary to meet required payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness, or if we otherwise fail to comply with the various covenants, including financial and operating covenants, in the instruments governing our indebtedness, we could be in default under the terms of the agreements governing such indebtedness, including the Notes. In the event of such default, the holders of such indebtedness could elect to declare all the funds borrowed thereunder to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest. In addition, the lenders under any revolving credit facility or other financing that we may obtain in the future could elect to terminate their commitment, cease making further loans and institute foreclosure proceedings against our assets, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. Any such default may constitute a default under the Notes and the Existing Notes, which could further limit our ability to repay our indebtedness, including the Notes. If our operating performance declines, we may in the future need to seek to obtain waivers from our existing lenders at the time to avoid being in default. If we breach any loan covenants, we may not be able to obtain such a waiver from the lenders. If this occurs, we would be in default under the credit arrangement that we have, the lender could exercise its rights as described above, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. If we are unable to repay indebtedness, lenders having secured obligations could proceed against the collateral securing the debt. Because the Churchill Facility and the NHB Mortgage have, and any future credit facilities may have, customary cross-default provisions, if the indebtedness under the Notes, the Existing Notes or under any future credit facility is accelerated, we may be unable to repay or finance the amounts due.
A downgrade, suspension or withdrawal of the credit rating assigned by a rating agency to us or the Notes, if any, could cause the liquidity or market value of the Notes to decline significantly.
Our credit rating is an assessment by an unrelated third party of our ability to pay our obligations. Consequently, real or anticipated changes in our credit rating will generally affect the market value of the Notes. Our credit rating, however, may not reflect the potential impact of risks related to market conditions generally or other factors discussed above on the market value of or trading market for the Notes. Credit ratings are not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold any security, and may be revised or withdrawn at any time by the issuing organization in its sole discretion.
The Notes have received a private rating of BBB+ from Egan-Jones Ratings Company. An explanation of the significance of ratings may be obtained from the rating agency. Generally, rating agencies base their ratings on such material and information, and such of their own investigations, studies and assumptions, as they deem appropriate. Neither we nor any underwriter undertakes any obligation to maintain our credit rating or to advise holders of the Notes of any changes in our credit rating. There can be no assurance that our credit rating will remain for any given period of time or that such credit rating will not be lowered or withdrawn entirely by the rating agency if in their judgment future circumstances relating to the basis of the credit rating, such as adverse changes in our company, so warrant.
Our amount of debt outstanding will increase as a result of this offering, and if we default on our obligations under the Churchill Facility, the Wells Fargo Loan, the NHB Mortgage or Needham Credit Facility, we may suffer adverse consequences and may not be able to make payments on the Notes.
To secure our obligations under the Churchill Facility, Churchill has a first priority security interest on the mortgage loans pledged as collateral under the Churchill Facility. If we default on our obligations under the Churchill Facility and fail to cure, Churchill will have the right to assign, sell, or otherwise transfer, the mortgage loans subject to their security interests. If Churchill exercises its right to sell the mortgage loans pledged under the Churchill Facility, such sales may be completed at distressed sale prices, thereby diminishing, or potentially eliminating, the amount of cash available to us after repayment of the amounts outstanding under the Churchill Facility. The Wells Fargo Loan is secured by our portfolio of short-term securities held at Wells Fargo. A decline in the value of the securities below the margin call limit may require us to provide additional funds or securities to Wells Fargo to avoid a forced sale of such securities. All amounts borrowed under the Needham Credit Facility are secured by a first priority lien on virtually all our assets excluding real estate owned by us (other than real estate acquired pursuant to foreclosure) and mortgages sold under the Churchill Facility. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, cash flows, our ability to make distributions to shareholders and make the interest payment on the Notes or the Existing Notes.
 
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Any default under the agreements governing our existing indebtedness, including a default under the Churchill Facility, the Wells Fargo Loan, the NHB Mortgage or Needham Credit Facility or other indebtedness to which we may be a party that is not waived by the required lenders, and the remedies sought by the holders of such indebtedness could make us unable to pay principal and interest on the Notes and substantially decrease the market value of the Notes. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow and are otherwise unable to obtain funds necessary to meet required payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness, or if we otherwise fail to comply with the various covenants, including financial and operating covenants, in the instruments governing our indebtedness, we could be in default under the terms of the agreements governing such indebtedness, including the Notes. In the event of such default, the holders of such indebtedness could elect to declare all the funds borrowed thereunder to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest. In addition, the lenders under any revolving credit facility or other financing that we may obtain in the future could elect to terminate their commitment, cease making further loans and institute foreclosure proceedings against our assets and force us into bankruptcy or liquidation. Any such default may constitute a default under all our indebtedness, including the Notes, which could further limit our ability to repay our indebtedness, including the Notes. If our operating performance declines, we may in the future need to seek to obtain waivers from our existing lenders at the time to avoid being in default. If we breach any loan covenants, we may not be able to obtain such a waiver from the lenders in which case we would be in default under the credit arrangement and the lender could exercise its rights as described above, and we may be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. If we are unable to repay indebtedness, lenders having secured obligations could proceed against the collateral securing the debt. Because the Churchill Facility and the NHB Mortgage have, and any future credit facilities may have, customary cross-default provisions, if repayment of any outstanding indebtedness, such as the Notes, the Churchill Facility, the Wells Fargo Loan, the NHB Mortgage, the Needham Credit Facility or any future credit facility, is accelerated, we may be unable to repay or finance the amounts due.
We will have broad discretion with respect to the use of the proceeds of this offering.
We plan to use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay, in full, the outstanding principal balance of the June 2024 Notes and the accrued but unpaid interest hereon. We estimate that the amount required to pay those notes in full will be approximately $24.1 million. We intend to use the balance of the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, i.e., to fund new real estate loans secured by first mortgage liens. However, we may apply some or a portion of the balance of the net proceeds from the sale of the Notes to repay all or a portion of the approximately $34.5 million principal amount of December 2024 Notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon which mature on December 30, 2024.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will have broad discretion to use the net proceeds from this offering for any of the intended purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to determine how the net proceeds will be used. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine how we use the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary. The failure by us to apply these funds effectively could harm our business.
We are not obligated to contribute funds to a sinking fund to repay principal or interest on the Notes upon maturity or default. The Notes are not certificates of deposit or similar obligations of, or guaranteed by, any depositary institution. Further, no private party or governmental entity insures or guarantees payment on the Notes if we do not have enough funds to make principal or interest payments.
We employ leverage, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.
Borrowings, also known as leverage, magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and, therefore, increase the risks associated with investing in us. We borrow from and issue senior debt securities to banks and other lenders that are secured by liens on our assets. Holders of these senior securities have fixed dollar claims on our assets that are superior to the claims of the holders of our other securities. Leverage is generally considered a speculative investment technique. Any increase in our income in excess of interest payable on our outstanding indebtedness would cause our net income to increase more than it would have had we not incurred leverage, while any decrease in our income would cause net income to decline more
 
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sharply than it would have had we not incurred leverage. Such a decline could negatively affect our ability to pay dividends to the holders of our equity securities or scheduled debt payments, including with respect to the Notes, as defined below. There can be no assurance that our leveraging strategy will be successful.
Our outstanding indebtedness imposes, and additional debt we may incur in the future will likely impose, financial and operating covenants that restrict our business activities, including limitations that could hinder our ability to finance additional loans and investments or to make the distributions required to maintain our status as a REIT. A failure to add new debt facilities or issue additional debt securities or incur other indebtedness in lieu of or in addition to existing indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our total outstanding indebtedness at March 31, 2024 was approximately $377.6 million, which included the Wells Fargo Loan balance of approximately $27.2 million, approximately $25.9 million outstanding under the Churchill Facility, approximately $1.1 million outstanding under the NHB Mortgage, $35.0 million outstanding under the Needham Credit Facility and approximately $288.4 million aggregate outstanding principal amount of Existing Notes. We may incur additional indebtedness in the future, including, but not limited to, borrowings under the Churchill Credit Facility and Needham Credit Facility or the issuance of additional debt securities in one or more public or private offerings, although there can be no assurance that we will be successful in doing so. Our ability to service our debt depends largely on our financial performance and is subject to prevailing economic conditions and competitive pressures. The amount of leverage that we employ depends on the assessment of management and the board of directors of market and other factors at the time of any proposed borrowing.
Under [the Notes and] the Existing Notes, we are generally required to meet an asset coverage ratio at least equal to 150%, respectively, of total assets to total borrowings and other senior securities, which include all our borrowings and any redeemable preferred stock we may issue in the future. If this ratio declines below 150%, we may not be able to incur additional debt and may need to sell a portion of our investments to repay some debt when it is disadvantageous to do so, and we may not be able to make distributions to our shareholders. Our asset coverage ratio as of March 31, 2024 was 165.9%. Assuming we sell and issue Notes having an aggregate principal amount of $ [•] million in this offering and we use the proceeds to repay in full the June 2024 Notes, our asset coverage ratio will be [•]% immediately after this offering is consummated.
Allowances for credit losses, provisions for credit losses and impairments remain a risk to our business.
We monitor a variety of indicators to track property value trends, including the Federal Funds Rate, U.S Treasury data, days-on-market, pending sales, NAHB’s Housing Market Index and the Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey. Additionally, we almost always utilize a third-party valuation including, but not limited to, appraisals, broker price opinions, and automated valuation models, to assist in both our underwriting and monitoring of our portfolio assets. Property value market cycles could have an adverse impact on our operations and financial condition. Over the past three years, the commercial real estate market throughout most of the United States has experienced a significant decline in value, notably commercial office assets, which has led to a corresponding increase in the rate of loan defaults and foreclosures. As a result, many REITs have been forced to record additional allowances for credit losses and write-downs of real estate assets. Although most of our loans are secured by residential properties, approximately 36.5% of our portfolio is secured by commercial real estate and, hence, we are not immune from this trend. On a quarterly basis, we evaluate the allowance for credit losses by analyzing several market indicators indicated above and adjust accordingly. Our total allowance for credit losses related to loans as of March 31, 2024 was approximately $10.6 million. Our total provisions for credit losses related to loans for the three-month period ended March 31, 2024 were approximately $1.3 million. Under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), allowances for credit losses and impairment charges reduce net income and, therefore, could have a material adverse impact on the value of our securities, which could make it more difficult for us to raise capital or increase the cost of capital. Unless we see a reversal of the decline in commercial property valuations, interest raise easing from the federal reserve, and an increase in lending activity for commercial real estate, we believe further allowances for credit losses, provisions for credit losses and impairments remain a risk to our business.
 
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A high level of defaults, particularly among larger mortgage loans, could have a material adverse impact on our business, operations and financial condition.
Historically, our mortgage loans were relatively small, and a small number of foreclosures did not have a material adverse impact on our business. However, our business strategy has changed, and we are now making larger loans with increasing frequency, changing the risk profile of our mortgage loan portfolio. When combined with the decline in commercial real estate values and restrictive credit conditions, the rate of foreclosures that we are experiencing is increasing. At March 31, 2024 we had 114 loans, approximately 41.8% of the loans in our portfolio, with an outstanding principal balance exceeding $1 million. Of the 273 mortgage loans in our portfolio, 56, or approximately 20.5%, were in the process of foreclosure. These foreclosure loans had an aggregate outstanding balance, principal, accrued but unpaid interest and other borrower charges, of approximately $72.9 million. At December 31, 2023, we had 113 loans, approximately 36.3% of the loans in our portfolio, with an outstanding principal balance exceeding $1 million. Of the 311 mortgage loans in our portfolio, 56, or approximately 18.0%, were in the process of foreclosure. These loans had an aggregate outstanding balance, principal, accrued but unpaid interest and other borrower charges, of approximately of approximately $68.1 million. At December 31, 2022, we had 98 loans, approximately 22.1% of the loans in our portfolio, with an outstanding principal balance exceeding $1 million. Of the 444 mortgage loans in our portfolio, 40, or approximately 9.0%, were in the process of foreclosure. These loans had an aggregate outstanding balance, principal, accrued but unpaid interest and other borrower charges, of approximately $24.0 million. If this trend continues, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, operations and financial condition.
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Prospectus Supplement includes forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Prospectus Supplement, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, strategy and plans, and our expectations for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “plan,” “seek,” “intend,” “believe,” “may,” “might,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “likely,” “continue,” “design,” and the negative of such terms and other words and terms of similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in “Risk Factors.” In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this Prospectus Supplement may not occur, and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, level of activity, performance or achievements. In addition, neither we nor any other person assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of any of these forward-looking statements. We disclaim any duty to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this Prospectus Supplement to confirm these statements in relationship to actual results or revised expectations.
All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements as well as others made in this Prospectus Supplement. You should evaluate all forward- looking statements made by us in the context of these risks and uncertainties.
 
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Use of PROCEEDS
We plan to use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay, in full, the outstanding principal balance of the June 2024 Notes and the accrued but unpaid interest hereon. We estimate that the amount required to repay those notes in full is $[•] million. We intend to use the balance of the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, i.e., to fund new real estate loans secured by first mortgage liens. However, we may apply some or a portion of the balance of the net proceeds from the sale of the Notes to repay all or a portion of the approximately $34.5 million principal amount of December 2024 Notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon which mature on December 30, 2024.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will have broad discretion to use the net proceeds from this offering for any of the intended purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to determine how the net proceeds will be used. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine how we use the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary.
 
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table shows our cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of March 31, 2024:

on an actual basis;

on a pro forma basis to give effect to: (i) the sale of 97,171 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock from April 1, 2024 through the date of this Prospectus Supplement and the receipt of approximately $2.1 million of net proceeds therefrom; (ii) mortgage principal repayments of approximately $2.9 million that were applied to reduce the outstanding balance on the Churchill Facility; (iii) the issuance of an aggregate of 101,000 common shares to our employees under our 2016 Equity Compensation Plan; (iv) gross proceeds from the sale of approximately $36.5 million of investment securities and the use of those proceeds to repay the outstanding balance on the Wells Fargo Loan; and (v) payments of approximately $19,700 that were applied to reduce the outstanding balance on the NHB Mortgage payable; and

on a pro forma, as adjusted basis, giving effect to the pro forma adjustments and sale of Notes in this offering and the receipt of net proceeds of approximately $[•] million from this offering, after deducting underwriting commissions of $[•] and estimated offering expenses payable by us of approximately $[•].
You should read the data set forth in the table below in conjunction with “Use of Proceeds,” appearing elsewhere in this Prospectus Supplement, as well as our unaudited financial statements and the accompanying notes and the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” each included in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended March 31, 2024 and incorporated by reference into this Prospectus Supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. 
March 31, 2024
Actual
Pro Forma
Pro Forma
As Adjusted
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 18,413,401 $ 26,823,855 $
Investment securities (at fair value)
38,432,752 1,943,750
Total
$ 56,846,153 $ 28,767,605 $         
Indebtedness:
Lines of credit
$ 62,251,343 $ 35,000,000 $
Repurchase facility
25,860,601 22,992,979
Mortgage payable
1,061,720 1,042,015
June 2024 Notes, December 2024 Notes, 2025 Notes, 2026
Notes, March 2027 Notes, June 2027 September 2027
Notes (net of deferred financing costs of $5,443,237
actual and pro forma and pro forma, as adjusted)
282,958,513 282,958,513
June 2029 Notes (net of deferred financing costs of $[•])
Total indebtedness
$ 372,132,177 $ 341,993,507 $
Equity:
Preferred shares – $.001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized; 2,108,957 shares of Series A Preferred Stock issued and outstanding actual; and 2,206,128 issued and outstanding pro forma and pro forma, as adjusted
2,109 2,206
Common shares – $.001 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized; 47,446,051 shares issued and outstanding, actual and 47,547,051 shares issued and outstanding pro forma and pro forma, as adjusted
47,446 47,547
Paid-in capital
253,669,954 255,729,878
 
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March 31, 2024
Actual
Pro Forma
Pro Forma
As Adjusted
Accumulated other comprehensive income
190,329 190,329
Accumulated deficit
(16,466,797) (16,466,797)
Total shareholders’ equity
$ 237,443,041 $ 239,503,163 $
Total capitalization
$ 609,575,218 $ 581,496,670 $
 
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Description of the Notes
The Notes will be issued under the base indenture dated as of June 21, 2019, between us and the U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association (as successor in interest to U.S. Bank, N.A.), as trustee, and an Eighth Supplemental Indenture thereto, dated as of June [•], 2024. We refer to the base indenture, as well as the Eighth Supplemental Indenture thereto, as the “Indenture” and to U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association (as successor in interest to U.S. Bank, N.A.) as the “trustee.” The Notes are governed by the Indenture, as required by federal law for all bonds and notes of companies that are publicly offered. An Indenture is a contract between us and the financial institution acting as trustee on your behalf and is subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended. The trustee has two main roles. First, the trustee can enforce your rights against us if we default. There are some limitations on the extent to which the trustee acts on your behalf, described in the second paragraph under “– Events of Default – Remedies if an Event of Default Occurs.” Second, the trustee performs certain administrative duties for us with respect to the Notes.
This section includes a description of the material terms of the Notes and the Indenture. Because this section is a summary, however, it does not describe every aspect of the Notes and the Indenture. We urge you to read the Indenture because it, and not this description, defines your rights as a holder of the Notes. The base indenture has been attached as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K filed by us on June 25, 2019 and the Eighth Supplemental Indenture will be attached as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K, which will be incorporated by reference into this Prospectus Supplement, in each case, as filed or as will be filed with the SEC.
General
The Notes will mature June [•], 2029. The principal payable at maturity will be 100% of the aggregate outstanding principal amount. The interest rate of the Notes is [•]% per year and will be paid every March 30, June 30, September 30, and December 30, beginning September 30, 2024, and the regular record dates for interest payments will be every March 15, June 15, September 15, and December 15, beginning September 15, 2024. If an interest payment date falls on a non-business day, the applicable interest payment will be made on the next business day and no additional interest will accrue because of such delayed payment. The initial interest period will be the period from and including June [•], 2024, to, but excluding September 30, 2024, and the subsequent interest periods will be the periods from and including an interest payment date to, but excluding, the next interest payment date or the stated maturity date, whichever is earlier.
The Notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $2,000.00 and integral multiples of $1,000.00 in excess thereof. They are not subject to any sinking fund and holders thereof will not have the option to have them repaid prior to the stated maturity date.
Except as described under the captions “Events of Default” and “Merger or Consolidation” ​(see pages S-39 through S-40, below), the Indenture does not contain any provisions that give you protection in the event we issue a large amount of debt or we are acquired by another entity.
Optional Redemption
The Notes may be redeemed in whole or in part at any time or from time to time at our option, upon not less than 30 days nor more than 60 days written notice by mail prior to the date fixed for redemption thereof, at a redemption price equal to the greater of the following amounts, plus, in each case, accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the redemption date: (1) 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed or (2) the sum of the present values of the remaining scheduled payments of principal and interest (exclusive of accrued and unpaid interest to the date of redemption) on the Notes to be redeemed, discounted to the redemption date on a semi-annual basis (assuming a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months) using the applicable Treasury Rate plus 50 basis points; provided, however, (i) if we redeem any Notes on or after June [•], 2026 through June [•], 2027, the redemption price for the Notes will be equal to [•]% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of redemption, (ii) if we redeem any Notes on or after June [•], 2027 through June [•], 2028, the redemption price for the Notes will be equal to [•]% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed,
 
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plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of redemption and (iii) if we redeem any Notes on or after June [•], 2028, the redemption price for the Notes will be equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the date of redemption.
You may be prevented from exchanging or transferring the Notes during the fifteen-day period ending on the date of the mailing of the notice of redemption if they have been selected for redemption. In case of a partial redemption, the redemption notice will provide that, upon surrender of the Note as, you will receive, without a charge, a new Note (or Notes) of authorized denominations representing the principal amount of your remaining unredeemed notes. Any exercise of our option to redeem the Notes will be done in accordance with the Indenture and the Investment Company Act, to the extent applicable.
If we redeem only some of the Notes, the trustee or, with respect to global securities, DTC will determine the method for selection of the particular Notes to be redeemed, in accordance with the Indenture and the Investment Company Act, to the extent applicable, and in accordance with the rules of any national securities exchange or quotation system on which the Notes are listed. Unless we default in payment of the redemption price, on and after the date of redemption, interest will cease to accrue on the Notes called for redemption. However, a partial redemption may not reduce the portion of the principal amount of a Note not redeemed to less than $2,000.
For purposes of calculating the redemption price in connection with the redemption of the Notes, on any redemption date, the following terms have the meanings set forth below:
“Comparable Treasury Issue” means the United States Treasury security selected by the Reference Treasury Dealer as having a maturity comparable to the remaining term of the Notes to be redeemed that would be utilized, at the time of selection and in accordance with customary financing practice, in pricing new issues of corporate debt securities of comparable maturity to the remaining term of the Notes being redeemed.
“Comparable Treasury Price” means (1) the average of the Reference Treasury Dealer Quotations for the redemption date, after excluding the highest and lowest Reference Treasury Dealer Quotations, or (2) if the Quotation Agent obtains fewer than four such Reference Treasury Dealer Quotations, the average of all such quotations.
“Quotation Agent” means a Reference Treasury Dealer selected by us.
“Reference Treasury Dealer” means each of any four primary U.S. government securities dealers selected by us.
“Reference Treasury Dealer Quotations” means, with respect to each Reference Treasury Dealer and any redemption date, the average, as determined by the Quotation Agent, of the bid and asked prices for the Comparable Treasury Issue (expressed in each case as a percentage of its principal amount) quoted in writing to the Quotation Agent by such Reference Treasury Dealer at 3:30 p.m. New York time on the third business day preceding such redemption date. All determinations made by any Reference Treasury Dealer, including the Quotation Agent, with respect to determining the redemption price will be final and binding absent manifest error.
“Treasury Rate” means, with respect to any redemption date, the rate per annum equal to the semi-annual equivalent yield-to-maturity of the Comparable Treasury Issue (computed as of the third business day immediately preceding the redemption), assuming a price for the Comparable Treasury Issue (expressed as a percentage of its principal amount) equal to the Comparable Treasury Price for such redemption date. The redemption price and the Treasury Rate will be determined by us.
Offer to Repurchase Upon a Change of Control Repurchase Event
If a Change of Control Repurchase Event occurs, unless we have exercised our right to redeem the Notes in full, we will make an offer to each holder of Notes to repurchase all or any part (in minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof) of that holder’s Notes at a repurchase price in cash equal to 100% of the aggregate principal amount of Notes repurchased plus any accrued and unpaid interest on the Notes repurchased to the date of purchase. Within 30 days following any Change of Control Repurchase Event or, at our option, prior to any Change of Control, but after the public announcement
 
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of the Change of Control, we will mail a notice to each holder describing the transaction or transactions that constitute or may constitute the Change of Control Repurchase Event and offering to repurchase Notes on the payment date specified in the notice, which date will be no earlier than 30 days and no later than 60 days from the date such notice is mailed. The notice shall, if mailed prior to the date of consummation of the Change of Control, state that the offer to purchase is conditioned on the Change of Control Repurchase Event occurring on or prior to the payment date specified in the notice. We will comply with the requirements of Rule 14e-1 under the Exchange Act and any other securities laws and regulations thereunder to the extent those laws and regulations are applicable in connection with the repurchase of the Notes as a result of a Change of Control Repurchase Event. To the extent that the provisions of any securities laws or regulations conflict with the Change of Control Repurchase Event provisions of the Notes, we will comply with the applicable securities laws and regulations and will not be deemed to have breached our obligations under the Change of Control Repurchase Event provisions of the Notes by virtue of such conflict.
On the Change of Control Repurchase Event payment date, subject to extension if necessary to comply with the provisions of the Investment Company Act, we will, to the extent lawful:
1)
accept for payment all Notes or portions of Notes properly tendered pursuant to our offer;
2)
deposit with the paying agent an amount equal to the aggregate purchase price in respect of all Notes or portions of Notes properly tendered; and
3)
deliver or cause to be delivered to the trustee the Notes properly accepted, together with an officers’ certificate stating the aggregate principal amount of Notes being purchased by us.
The paying agent will promptly remit to each holder of Notes properly tendered the purchase price for the Notes, and the trustee will promptly authenticate and mail (or cause to be transferred by book-entry) to each holder a new Note equal in principal amount to any unpurchased portion of any Notes surrendered; provided that each new Note will be in a minimum principal amount of $2,000 or an integral multiple of $1,000 in excess thereof.
We will not be required to make an offer to repurchase the Notes upon a Change of Control Repurchase Event if a third party makes an offer in the manner, at the times and otherwise in compliance with the requirements for an offer made by us and such third party purchases all Notes properly tendered and not withdrawn under its offer.
The source of funds that will be required to repurchase Notes in the event of a Change of Control Repurchase Event will be our available cash or cash generated from our operations or other potential sources, including funds provided by a purchaser in the Change of Control transaction, borrowings, sales of assets or sales of equity. We cannot assure you that sufficient funds from such sources will be available at the time of any Change of Control Repurchase Event to make required repurchases of Notes tendered. Before making any such repurchase of Notes no event of default shall exist under the Churchill Facility and Needham Credit Facility. The terms of our Churchill Facility and Needham Credit Facility also provide that certain change of control events will constitute an event of default thereunder entitling the lenders to accelerate any indebtedness outstanding under our Churchill Facility and Needham Credit Facility at that time and to terminate the Churchill Facility and Needham Credit Facility. Our and our subsidiaries’ future financing facilities may contain similar restrictions and provisions. Our failure to purchase such tendered Notes upon the occurrence of such Change of Control Repurchase Event would cause an event of default under the Indenture governing the Notes and a cross-default under the agreements governing certain of our other indebtedness, which may result in the acceleration of such indebtedness requiring us to repay that indebtedness immediately. If the holders of the Notes exercise their right to require us to repurchase Notes upon a Change of Control Repurchase Event, the financial effect of this repurchase could cause a default under our current and future debt instruments, even if the Change of Control Repurchase Event itself would not cause a default. It is possible that we will not have sufficient funds at the time of the Change of Control Repurchase Event to make the required repurchase of the Notes and/or our other debt.
The definition of “Change of Control” includes the direct or indirect sale, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of “all or substantially all” of our properties or assets and those of our subsidiaries taken as a whole. Although there is a limited body of case law interpreting the phrase “substantially all,” there is no precise, established definition of the phrase under applicable law. Accordingly, the ability of a holder of Notes
 
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to require us to repurchase the Notes as a result of a sale, transfer, conveyance or other disposition of less than all our assets and the assets of our subsidiaries taken as a whole to another person or group may be uncertain.
For purposes of the Notes:
“Below Investment Grade Rating Event” means the Notes are downgraded below Investment Grade by the Rating Agency on any date from the date of the public notice of an arrangement that results in a Change of Control until the end of the 60-day period following public notice of the occurrence of a Change of Control (which period shall be extended so long as the rating of the Notes is under publicly announced consideration for possible downgrade by the Rating Agency); provided that a Below Investment Grade Rating Event otherwise arising by virtue of a particular reduction in rating shall not be deemed to have occurred in respect of a particular Change of Control (and thus shall not be deemed a Below Investment Grade Rating Event for purposes of the definition of Change of Control Repurchase Event hereunder) if the Rating Agency does not announce or publicly confirm or inform the trustee in writing at its request that the reduction was the result, in whole or in part, of any event or circumstance comprised of or arising as a result of, or in respect of, the applicable Change of Control (whether or not the applicable Change of Control shall have occurred at the time of the Below Investment Grade Rating Event).
“Change of Control” means the occurrence of any of the following:
(1)
the direct or indirect sale, lease, transfer, conveyance or other disposition (other than by way of merger or consolidation) in one or a series of related transactions, of all or substantially all our assets and our Controlled Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, to any “person” or “group” ​(as those terms are used in Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act), other than to any Permitted Holders; provided that, for the avoidance of doubt, a pledge of assets pursuant to any secured debt instrument of Sachem Capital Corp. or its Controlled Subsidiaries shall not be deemed to be any such sale, lease, transfer, conveyance or disposition;
(2)
the consummation of any transaction (including, without limitation, any merger or consolidation) the result of which is that any “person” or “group” ​(as those terms are used in Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act) (other than any Permitted Holders) becomes the “beneficial owner” ​(as defined in Rules 13d-3 and 13d-5 under the Exchange Act), directly or indirectly, of more than 50% of the outstanding Voting Stock of Sachem Capital Corp., measured by voting power rather than number of shares; or
(3)
the approval by Sachem Capital Corp.’s stockholders of any plan or proposal relating to the liquidation or dissolution of Sachem Capital Corp.
“Change of Control Repurchase Event” means the occurrence of a Change of Control and a Below Investment Grade Rating Event.
“Controlled Subsidiary” means any subsidiary of Sachem Capital Corp., 50% or more of the outstanding equity interests of which are owned by Sachem Capital Corp. and its direct or indirect subsidiaries and of which Sachem Capital Corp. possesses, directly or indirectly, the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies, whether through the ownership of voting equity interests, by agreement or otherwise.
“Egan-Jones” means Egan-Jones Ratings Company or any successor thereto.
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and any statute successor thereto.
“Investment Grade” means a rating of BBB+ or better by Egan-Jones (or its equivalent under any successor rating categories of Egan-Jones) (or, if such Rating Agency ceases to rate the Notes for reasons outside of our control, the equivalent investment grade credit rating from any Rating Agency selected by us as a replacement Rating Agency).
“Permitted Holders” means (i) us and (ii) one or more of our Controlled Subsidiaries.
“Rating Agency” means:
1)
Egan-Jones; and
 
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2)
if Egan-Jones ceases to rate the Notes or fails to make a rating of the Notes publicly available for reasons outside of our control, a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” as defined in Section (3)(a)(62) of the Exchange Act selected by us as a replacement agency for Egan-Jones.
“Voting Stock” as applied to stock of any person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.
Private Rating of the Notes
The Notes have a private credit rating of BBB+ from Egan-Jones Ratings Company. An explanation of the significance of ratings may be obtained from the rating agency. Generally, rating agencies base their ratings on such material and information, and such of their own investigations, studies and assumptions, as they deem appropriate. The rating of the Notes should be evaluated independently from similar ratings of other securities. A credit rating of a security is paid for by the issuer and is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and may be subject to review, revision, suspension, reduction or withdrawal at any time by the assigning rating agency. See “Risk Factors – A downgrade, suspension or withdrawal of the credit rating assigned by a rating agency to us or the Notes, if any, could cause the liquidity or market value of the Notes to decline significantly.”
Global Securities
Each Note sold will be issued in book-entry form and represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, or its nominee. A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary or its nominee unless special termination situations arise. As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all the Notes, represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. For more information about these arrangements, see “– Book-Entry Procedures” below.
Termination of a Global Security
If a global security is terminated for any reason, interests in it will be exchanged for certificates in non-book-entry form (certificated securities). After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold the certificated Notes directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in a global security transferred on termination to their own names, so that they will be holders.
Payment
We will pay interest to the person listed in the trustee’s records as the owner of Notes at the close of business on a particular day in advance of each due date for interest, even if that person no longer owns the Note on the interest due date. That day, usually about two weeks in advance of the interest due date, is called the “record date.” Because we will pay all the interest for an interest period to the holders on the record date, holders buying and selling Notes must work out between themselves the appropriate purchase price. The most common manner is to adjust the sales price of Notes to prorate interest fairly between buyer and seller based on their respective ownership periods within the particular interest period. This prorated interest amount is called “accrued interest.”
Payments on Global Securities
We will make payments on the Notes so long as they are represented by a global security in accordance with the applicable policies of the depositary as in effect from time to time. Under those policies, we will make payments directly to the depositary, or its nominee, and not to any indirect holders who own beneficial interests in the global security. An indirect holder’s right to those payments will be governed by the rules and practices of the depositary and its participants, as described under “– Book-Entry Procedures.”
 
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Payments on Certificated Securities
In the event the Notes become represented by certificated securities, we will make payments on the Notes as follows. We will pay interest that is due on an interest payment date to the holder of the Notes as shown on the trustee’s records as of the close of business on the regular record date at our office in Branford, Connecticut. We will make all payments of principal and premium, if any, by check at the office of the applicable trustee in New York, New York and/or at other offices that may be specified in the Indenture or a notice to holders against surrender of the Note. Alternatively, at our option, we may pay any cash interest that becomes due on the Notes by mailing a check to the holder at his, her or its address shown on the trustee’s records as of the close of business on the regular record date or by transfer to an account at a bank in the United States, in either case, on the due date.
Payment When Offices Are Closed
If any payment is due on the Notes on a day that is not a business day, we will make the payment on the next day that is a business day. Payments made on the next business day in this situation will be treated under the Indenture as if they were made on the original due date. Such payment will not result in a default under the Notes or the Indenture, and no interest will accrue on the payment amount from the original due date to the next business day.
Book-entry and other indirect holders should consult their banks or brokers for information on how they will receive payments on the Notes.
Events of Default
You will have rights if an Event of Default occurs in respect of the Notes, as described later in this subsection.
The term “Event of Default” in respect of the Notes means any of the following:

We do not pay the principal (or premium, if any) of any Note when due.

We do not pay interest on any Note when due, and such default is not cured within 30 days.

We remain in breach of a covenant in respect of the Notes for 60 days after we receive a written notice of default stating we are in breach (the notice must be sent by either the trustee or holders of at least 25% of the principal amount of the Notes, including the Notes, as a single series).

We file for bankruptcy or certain other events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur and in the case of certain orders or decrees entered against us under bankruptcy law, such order or decree remains undischarged or unstayed for a period of 60 days.

Default by us or any of our significant subsidiaries, as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Exchange Act (but excluding any subsidiary which is (a) a non-recourse or limited recourse subsidiary, (b) a bankruptcy remote special purpose vehicle, or (c) is not consolidated with us for purposes of GAAP), with respect to any mortgage, agreement or other instrument under which there may be outstanding, or by which there may be secured or evidenced, any indebtedness for money borrowed in excess of [•] million in the aggregate of us and/or any such subsidiary, whether such indebtedness now exists or shall hereafter be created (i) resulting in such indebtedness becoming or being declared due and payable or (ii) constituting a failure to pay the principal or interest of any such debt when due and payable at its stated maturity, upon required repurchase, upon declaration of acceleration or otherwise, unless, in either case, such indebtedness is discharged, or such acceleration is rescinded, stayed or annulled, within a period of 30 calendar days after written notice of such failure is given to us by the trustee or to us and the trustee by the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Notes then outstanding.
An Event of Default for the Notes does not necessarily constitute an Event of Default for any other series of debt securities issued under the same or any other Indenture. The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the Notes of any default, except in the payment of principal or interest, if it in good faith considers the withholding of notice to be in the best interests of the holders.
 
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Remedies if an Event of Default Occurs
If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the Notes, including the Notes, as a single series, may declare the entire principal amount of all such notes to be due and immediately payable. This is called a declaration of acceleration of maturity. In certain circumstances, a declaration of acceleration of maturity may be canceled by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Notes, including the Notes, as a single series, if (1) we have deposited with the trustee all amounts due and owing with respect to such notes (other than principal that has become due solely by reason of such acceleration) and certain other amounts, and (2) any other Events of Default have been cured or waived.
Except in cases of default, where the trustee has some special duties, the trustee is not required to take any action under the Indenture at the request of any holders unless the holders offer the trustee protection from expenses and liability (called an “indemnity”). If indemnity is provided, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Notes may direct the time, method and place of conducting any lawsuit or other formal legal action seeking any remedy available to the trustee. The trustee may refuse to follow those directions in certain circumstances. No delay or omission in exercising any right or remedy will be treated as a waiver of that right, remedy or Event of Default.
Before you are allowed to bypass the trustee and bring your own lawsuit or other formal legal action or take other steps to enforce your rights or protect your interests relating to the Notes, the following must occur:

you must give the trustee written notice that an Event of Default has occurred and remains uncured;

the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Notes, including the Notes, as a single series, must make a written request that the trustee take action because of the default and must offer indemnity and/or security to the trustee against the cost and other liabilities of taking that action;

the trustee must not have taken action for 60 days after receipt of the above notice and offer of indemnity and/or security; and

the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Notes, including the Notes, as a single series, must not have given the trustee a direction inconsistent with the above notice during that 60- day period.
However, you are entitled at any time to bring a lawsuit for the payment of money due on your Notes on or after the due date.
Book-entry and other indirect holders should consult their banks or brokers for information on how to give notice or direction to or make a request of the trustee and how to declare or cancel an acceleration of maturity.
Each year, we will furnish the trustee with a written statement of certain of our officers certifying that, to their knowledge, we are either in compliance with the Indenture and the Notes or specifying any default.
Waiver of Default
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the Notes, including the Notes, as a single series, may waive any past defaults other than:

the payment of principal or interest; or

in respect of a covenant that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of each holder.
Merger or Consolidation
Under the terms of the Indenture, we are generally permitted to consolidate or merge with another entity. We are also permitted to sell all or substantially all our assets to another entity. However, we may not take any of these actions unless all the following conditions are met:

Where we merge out of existence or convey or transfer our assets substantially as an entirety, the resulting entity must agree to be legally responsible for our obligations under the Notes.

The merger or sale of assets must not cause a default on the Notes and we must not already be in default (unless the merger or sale cures the default). For purposes of this no-default test, a default would
 
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include an Event of Default that has occurred and has not been cured, as described under “Events of Default” above. A default for this purpose would also include any event that would be an Event of Default if the requirements for giving us a notice of default or our default having to exist for a specific period of time were disregarded.

We must deliver certain certificates and documents to the trustee.
Modification or Waiver
There are three types of changes we can make to the Indenture and the Notes.
Changes Requiring Your Approval
First, there are changes that we cannot make to the Notes without your specific approval. The following is a list of those types of changes:

change the stated maturity of the principal of or interest on the Notes;

reduce any amounts due on the Notes;

reduce the amount of principal payable upon acceleration of the maturity of a Note following a default;

change the place or currency of payment on a Note;

impair your right to sue for payment;

reduce the percentage of holders of Notes whose consent is needed to modify or amend the Indenture; and

reduce the percentage of holders of Notes whose consent is needed to waive compliance with certain provisions of the Indenture or to waive certain defaults.
Changes Not Requiring Approval
The second type of change does not require any vote by the holders of the Notes. This type is limited to clarifications and certain other changes that would not adversely affect holders of the Notes in any material respect.
Changes Requiring Majority Approval
Any other change to the Indenture and the Notes would require the following approval:

if the change affects only the Notes, it must be approved by the holders of a majority in principal amount of such notes; and

if the change affects more than one series of debt securities issued under the same Indenture, it must be approved by the holders of a majority in principal amount of the series affected by the change, with all affected series voting together as one class for this purpose.
In both cases, the required approval must be given by written consent.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of a series of debt securities issued under an Indenture, voting together as one class for this purpose, may waive our compliance with some of our covenants in that Indenture. However, we cannot obtain a waiver of a payment default or of any of the matters covered by the bullet points included above under “– Changes Requiring Your Approval.”
 
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Further Details Concerning Voting
When taking a vote, we will use the following rules to decide how much principal to attribute to the Notes:
The Notes will not be considered outstanding, and therefore not eligible to vote, if we have deposited or set aside in trust money for their payment or redemption. The Notes will also not be eligible to vote if they have been fully defeased as described later under “Defeasance – Full Defeasance.”
We will generally be entitled to set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the holders of the Notes that are entitled to vote or take other action under the Indenture. However, the record date may not be more than 30 days before the date of the first solicitation of holders to vote on or take such action. If we set a record date for a vote or other action to be taken by holders of the Notes, that vote or action may be taken only by persons who are holders of the Notes on the record date and the vote and the action must be taken within eleven months following the record date.
Book-entry and other indirect holders should consult their banks or brokers for information on how approval may be granted or denied if we seek to change the Indenture or the Notes or request a waiver.
Defeasance
“Defeasance” means that, by depositing with a trustee an amount of cash and/or government securities sufficient to pay all principal and interest, if any, on the Notes when due and satisfying any additional conditions noted below, we will be deemed to have been discharged from our obligations under the Notes. In the event of a “covenant defeasance,” upon depositing such funds and satisfying similar conditions discussed below we would be released from the restrictive covenants under the Indenture.
The following defeasance provisions will be applicable to the Notes:
Covenant Defeasance
Under the Indenture, we can make the deposit described below and be released from some of the restrictive covenants in the Indenture. This is called “covenant defeasance.” In that event, you would lose the protection of those restrictive covenants but would gain the protection of having money or money and government securities set aside in trust to repay your Notes. If we achieve covenant defeasance and your Notes were subordinated as described under “Indenture Provisions – Ranking” below, such subordination will not prevent the trustee from applying the funds available to it from the deposit described in the first bullet to the payment of amounts due in respect of such debt securities for the benefit of the subordinated debtholders. To achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following:

Since the Notes are denominated in U.S. dollars, we must deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of the Notes either cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency notes or bonds that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on such notes on their various due dates.

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that, under current U.S. federal income tax law, we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the Notes any differently than if we did not make the deposit.

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel stating that the above deposit does not require registration by us under the Investment Company Act, and a legal opinion and officers’ certificate stating that all conditions precedent to covenant defeasance have been complied with.

Defeasance must not result in a breach or violation of, or result in a default under, the Indenture or any of our other material agreements or instruments.

No default or event of default with respect to the Notes shall have occurred and be continuing and no defaults or events of default related to bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization shall occur during the next 90 days.
If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you can still look to us for repayment of the Notes if there is a shortfall in the trust deposit or the trustee is prevented from making payment. For example, if one of the
 
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remaining Events of Default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the Notes became immediately due and payable, there might be a shortfall. Depending on the event causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.
Full Defeasance
We can legally release ourselves from all payment and other obligations on the Notes (called “full defeasance”) if we put in place the following other arrangements for you to be repaid:

Since the Notes are denominated in U.S. dollars, we must deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of the Notes a combination of money and U.S. government or U.S. government agency notes or bonds that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the Notes on their various due dates.

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion confirming that there has been a change in current U.S. federal tax law or an IRS ruling that allows us to make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the Notes any differently than if we did not make the deposit. Under current U.S. federal tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the Notes would be treated as though we paid you your share of the cash and notes or bonds at the time the cash and notes or bonds were deposited in trust in exchange for your Notes and you would recognize gain or loss on the Notes at the time of the deposit.

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel stating that the above deposit does not require registration by us under the Investment Company Act, and a legal opinion and officers’ certificate stating that all conditions precedent to defeasance have been complied with.

Defeasance must not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, of the Indenture or any of our other material agreements or instruments.

No default or event of default with respect to the Notes shall have occurred and be continuing and no defaults or events of default related to bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization shall occur during the next ninety (90) days.
If we ever did accomplish full defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the Notes. You could not look to us for repayment in the unlikely event of any shortfall. Conversely, the trust deposit would most likely be protected from claims of lenders and other creditors if we ever became bankrupt or insolvent. If your Notes were subordinated as described later under “– Indenture Provisions – Ranking,” such subordination would not prevent the trustee from applying the funds available to it from the deposit referred to in the first bullet of the preceding paragraph to the payment of amounts due in respect of the Notes for the benefit of the subordinated debtholders.
Asset Coverage Covenant
In addition to any other covenants described in this Prospectus Supplement, as well as standard covenants relating to payment of principal and interest, maintaining an office where payments may be made or where securities can be surrendered for payment, payment of taxes by us and related matters, the Indenture prohibits us from, for the period of time during which the Notes are outstanding, paying any dividends or make distributions in excess of 90% of our taxable income, incurring any indebtedness or purchasing any shares of our capital stock unless we have an “Asset Coverage Ratio” of at least 150% after giving effect to the incurrence of such indebtedness and the application of the net proceeds therefrom or after taking into account the purchase price for such shares, as the case may be. “Asset Coverage Ratio” means the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the value of our total assets bears to the aggregate amount of our indebtedness (including the aggregate of the involuntary liquidation preference of redeemable preferred stock, if any).
Form, Exchange and Transfer of Certificated Registered Securities
If Notes cease to be issued in book-entry form, they will be issued:

only in fully registered certificated form;

without interest coupons; and
 
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unless we indicate otherwise, in minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 in excess thereof.
Holders may exchange their certificated securities for Notes of smaller denominations or combined into fewer Notes of larger denominations, as long as the total principal amount is not changed and as long as the minimum denomination is equal to or greater than $2,000.
Holders may exchange or transfer their certificated securities at the office of the trustee. We have appointed the trustee to act as our agent for registering notes in the names of holders transferring Notes. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.
Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their certificated securities, but they may be required to pay any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership.
We may appoint additional transfer agents or cancel the appointment of a transfer agent. We may also approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts.
If any certificated securities of a particular series are redeemable and we redeem less than all the debt securities of that series, we may block the transfer or exchange of those debt securities during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of redemption and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers or exchanges of any certificated securities selected for redemption, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unredeemed portion of any debt security that will be partially redeemed.
If a registered debt security is issued in book-entry form, only the depositary will be entitled to transfer and exchange the debt security as described in this subsection, since it will be the sole holder of the debt security.
Resignation of Trustee
The trustee may resign or be removed with respect to the Notes provided that a successor trustee is appointed to act with respect to such notes. If there is more than one person acting as trustee with respect to different series of indenture securities under the Indenture, each trustee will be a trustee of a trust separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee.
Indenture Provisions – Ranking
The Notes will be our direct unsecured obligations and rank:

Pari passu with, which means equal to, all outstanding and future unsecured unsubordinated indebtedness issued by us, including the June 2024 Notes, the December 2024 Notes, the 2025 Notes, 2026 Notes, March 2027 Notes, June 2027 Notes and the September 2027 Notes. They also rank pari passu with our general liabilities, which consist of trade and other payables, including any outstanding dividend payable, interest and debt fees payable, vendor payables and accrued expenses such as auditor fees, legal fees, director fees, advances from borrowers, etc. In total, these general liabilities were approximately $11.9 million as of March 31, 2024.

Senior to any of our future indebtedness that expressly provides it is subordinated to the Notes. As of the date of this Prospectus Supplement, we do not have outstanding debt that is subordinated to the Notes and do not currently intend to issue indebtedness that expressly provides that it is subordinated to the Notes. Therefore, the Notes, as currently contemplated, will not be senior to any indebtedness or obligations.

Effectively subordinated to all our existing and future secured indebtedness (including indebtedness that is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant a security interest), to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness. At March 31, 2024, the aggregate outstanding amount of our secured indebtedness was approximately $89.2 million, consisting of approximately $25.9 million outstanding under the Churchill Facility, approximately $27.2 million outstanding under the Wells
 
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Fargo Loan, $35.0 million outstanding under the Needham Credit Facility, and $1.1 million outstanding under the NHB Mortgage. In any liquidation, dissolution, bankruptcy or other similar proceeding, the holders of any of our existing or future secured indebtedness may assert rights against the assets pledged to secure that indebtedness in order to receive full payment of their indebtedness before the assets may be used to pay other creditors, including the holders of the Notes, and any assets of our subsidiaries will not be directly available to satisfy the claims of our creditors, including holders of the Notes.

Structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other obligations of any of our subsidiaries and financing vehicles since the Notes are obligations exclusively of Sachem Capital Corp. and not of any of our subsidiaries. Structural subordination means that creditors of a parent entity are subordinate to creditors of a subsidiary entity with respect to the subsidiary’s assets.
Book-Entry Procedures
The Notes will be represented by global securities that will be deposited and registered in the name of DTC or its nominee. This means that, except in limited circumstances, you will not receive certificates for your Notes.
Beneficial interests in the Notes will be represented through book-entry accounts of financial institutions acting on behalf of beneficial owners as direct and indirect participants in DTC. Investors may elect to hold their interests in Notes through either DTC, if they are a participant, or indirectly through organizations that are participants in DTC.
The Notes will be issued as fully registered securities registered in the name of Cede & Co. (DTC’s partnership nominee) or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. One fully registered certificate will be issued for each issuance of Notes, in the aggregate principal amount of such issue, and will be deposited with DTC. Interests in the Notes will trade in DTC’s Same Day Funds Settlement System, and any permitted secondary market trading activity in the Notes will, therefore, be required by DTC to be settled in immediately available funds. We will not have, and neither the trustee nor the paying agent will have, any responsibility for the performance by DTC or its participants or indirect participants of their respective obligations under the rules and procedures governing their operations.
DTC is a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law, a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law, a member of the Federal Reserve System, a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code, and a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act. DTC holds and provides asset servicing for over 3.5 million issues of U.S. and non-U.S. equity, corporate and municipal debt issues, and money market instruments (from over 100 countries) that DTC’s participants (“Direct Participants”) deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the post-trade settlement among Direct Participants of sales and other securities transactions in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry transfers and pledges between Direct Participants’ accounts. This eliminates the need for physical movement of securities certificates. Direct Participants include both U.S. and non-U.S. securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations, and certain other organizations. DTC is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (“DTCC”).
DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as both U.S. and non-U.S. securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies and clearing corporations that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a Direct Participant, either directly or indirectly (“Indirect Participants”). The DTC Rules applicable to its participants are on file with the SEC. More information about DTC can be found at www.dtcc.com.
Purchases of Notes under the DTC system must be made by or through Direct Participants, which will receive a credit for the Notes on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of each actual purchaser of each security, or the “Beneficial Owner,” is in turn to be recorded on the Direct and Indirect Participants’ records. Beneficial Owners will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchase. Beneficial Owners are, however, expected to receive written confirmations providing details of the transaction, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the Direct or Indirect Participant through which the Beneficial Owner
 
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entered into the transaction. Transfers of ownership interests in the Notes are to be accomplished by entries made in the books of Direct and Indirect Participants acting on behalf of Beneficial Owners. Beneficial Owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the Notes, except in the event that use of the book-entry system for the Notes is discontinued.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all Notes deposited by Direct Participants with DTC are registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co. or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of the Notes with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other DTC nominee do not effect any change in beneficial ownership. DTC has no knowledge of the actual Beneficial Owners of the Notes; DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the Direct Participants to whose accounts Notes are credited, which may or may not be the Beneficial Owners. The Direct and Indirect Participants will remain responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to Direct Participants, by Direct Participants to Indirect Participants, and by Direct Participants and Indirect Participants to Beneficial Owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect from time to time.
Redemption notices shall be sent to DTC. If less than all the Notes are redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the interest of each Direct Participant in each note to be redeemed.
Redemption proceeds, distributions, and interest payments on the Notes will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit Direct Participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detailed information from us or the trustee on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC’s records. Payments by Participants to Beneficial Owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such Participant and not of DTC nor its nominee, the trustee, or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements as may be in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions, and interest payments to Cede & Co. (or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC) is the responsibility of us or the trustee, but disbursement of such payments to Direct Participants will be the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of such payments to the Beneficial Owners will be the responsibility of Direct and Indirect Participants.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depository with respect to the Notes at any time by giving reasonable notice to us or to the trustee. Under such circumstances, in the event a successor securities depository is not obtained, certificates are required to be printed and delivered. We may decide to discontinue use of the system of book-entry-only transfers through DTC (or a successor securities depository). In that event, certificates will be printed and delivered to DTC.
The information in this section concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy thereof.
 
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Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
The following discussion is a general summary of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations (and, in the case of a non-U.S. holder (as defined below), certain U.S. federal estate tax consequences) applicable to an investment in the Notes. This summary does not purport to be a complete description of the income and estate tax considerations applicable to such an investment. The discussion is based upon the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), Treasury Regulations, and administrative and judicial interpretations, each as of the date of this Prospectus Supplement and all of which are subject to change, potentially with retroactive effect. You should consult your own tax advisor with respect to tax considerations that pertain to your purchase, ownership and disposition of the Notes.
This discussion deals only with Notes held as capital assets within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment) and does not purport to deal with persons in special tax situations, such as financial institutions, insurance companies, controlled foreign corporations, passive foreign investment companies and regulated investment companies (and shareholders of such corporations), dealers in securities or currencies, traders in securities, former citizens of the United States, persons holding Notes as a hedge against currency risks or as a position in a “straddle,” “hedge,” “constructive sale transaction” or “conversion transaction” for tax purposes, entities that are tax-exempt for U.S. federal income tax purposes, retirement plans, individual retirement accounts, tax-deferred accounts, persons subject to the alternative minimum tax, pass-through entities (including partnerships and entities and arrangements classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes) and beneficial owners of pass-through entities, or persons whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar. It does not deal with beneficial owners of Notes other than original purchasers of Notes who acquire Notes in this offering for a price equal to their original issue price (i.e., the first price at which a substantial amount of the notes is sold other than to bond houses, brokers, or similar persons or organizations acting in the capacity of underwriters, placement agents or wholesalers). It also does not address the U.S. federal income tax consequences to beneficial owners of Notes subject to the special tax accounting rules under Section 451(b) of the Code. In addition, this summary only addresses U.S. federal income tax consequences, and, except as otherwise noted below, does not address any U.S. state or local or non-U.S. tax consequences. If you are considering purchasing Notes, you should consult your own tax advisor concerning the application of the U.S. federal tax laws to you in light of your particular situation, as well as any consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of Notes under the laws of any other taxing jurisdiction.
For purposes of this discussion, the term “U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of a Note that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (i) an individual citizen or resident of the United States, (ii) a corporation or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or any State thereof or the District of Columbia, (iii) a trust (a) subject to the control of one or more U.S. persons and the primary supervision of a court in the United States, or that existed on August 20, 1996 and has made a valid election (under applicable Treasury Regulations) to be treated as a domestic trust, or (iv) an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source. The term “non-U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of a Note that is not a U.S. holder. An individual may, subject to exceptions, be deemed to be a resident alien, as opposed to a non- resident alien, by, among other ways, being present in the United States (i) on at least 31 days in the calendar year, and (ii) for an aggregate of at least 183 days during a three-year period ending in the current calendar year, counting, for such purposes, all the days present in the current year, one-third of the days present in the immediately preceding year, and one-sixth of the days present in the second preceding year. Resident aliens are subject to U.S. federal income tax as if they were U.S. citizens.
If a partnership (including an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds any Notes, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner of the partnership generally will depend upon the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Partners of partnerships holding Notes should consult their own tax advisors.
Taxation of Note Holders
Under present law, the Notes will constitute our indebtedness for U.S. federal income tax purposes and this discussion assumes that to be the case. Accordingly, we intend to treat all payments made with respect to the Notes consistent with this characterization.
 
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Taxation of U.S. Holders.   Payments or accruals of interest on a Note generally will be taxable to a U.S. holder as ordinary interest income at the time they are received (actually or constructively) or accrued, in accordance with the U.S. holder’s regular method of tax accounting.
Upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a Note, a U.S. holder generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized on the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition (excluding amounts representing accrued and unpaid interest, which are treated as ordinary income to the extent not previously included in income) and the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such Note. A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in a Note generally will equal the U.S. holder’s initial investment in such Note. Capital gain or loss generally will be long-term capital gain or loss if such Note was held for more than one year. Long-term capital gains recognized by certain other non-corporate U.S. holders (including individuals) generally are eligible for reduced rates of taxation. The distinction between capital gain or loss and ordinary income or loss is also important in other contexts; for example, for purposes of the limitations on a U.S. holder’s ability to offset capital losses against ordinary income.
Unearned Income Medicare Contribution.   A tax of 3.8% will be imposed on certain “net investment income” ​(or “undistributed net investment income,” in the case of estates and trusts) received by taxpayers other than corporations with adjusted gross income above certain threshold amounts. “Net investment income” as defined for U.S. federal Medicare contribution purposes generally includes interest payments and gain recognized from the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of the Notes. Tax-exempt trusts, which are not subject to income taxes generally, and foreign individuals will not be subject to this tax. U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this tax on their ownership and disposition of such Notes.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders.   A non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding taxes on payments of principal or interest on a Note provided that (i) income on such Note is not effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States, (ii) the non-U.S. holder is not a controlled foreign corporation related to Sachem Capital Corp through stock ownership, (iii) the non-U.S. holder is not a bank receiving interest described in Section 881(c)(3)(A) of the Code, (iv) the non-U.S. holder does not own (directly or indirectly, actually or constructively) 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of capital stock of Sachem Capital Corp, and (v) the non-U.S. holder has provided a statement in the year in which a payment occurs or in the preceding three years, on an Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) Form W-8BEN, Form W-8BEN-E, or other applicable form signed under penalties of perjury that includes its name and address and certifies that the non-U.S. holder is the beneficial owner and is not a U.S. person in compliance with applicable requirements, or satisfies documentary evidence requirements for establishing that it is a non-U.S. holder.
Non-U.S. holders may be required to update those forms periodically.
A non-U.S. holder that is not exempt from tax under these rules generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax withholding on payments of interest on the Notes at a rate of 30% unless (i) the income is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business (and, under certain income tax treaties, is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained in the United States by the non-U.S. holder), so long as the non-U.S. holder has provided an IRS Form W-8ECI or substantially similar substitute form stating that the interest on such Notes is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the U.S. in which case the interest will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis as applicable to U.S. holders generally (unless an applicable income tax treaty provides otherwise), or an applicable income tax treaty provides for a lower rate of, or exemption from, withholding tax.
In the case of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation and that receives income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business, such income may also be subject to a branch profits tax (which is generally imposed on a non-U.S. corporation on the actual or deemed repatriation from the United States of earnings and profits attributable to a U.S. trade or business) at a 30% rate. The branch profits tax may not apply (or may apply at a reduced rate) if the non-U.S. holder is a qualified resident of a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty.
To claim the benefit of an income tax treaty or to claim exemption from withholding because income is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, the non-U.S. holder must timely provide the appropriate,
 
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properly executed IRS forms. The non-U.S. holder must inform the recipient of any changes on these forms within 30 days of such change. These forms may be required to be periodically updated. Also, a non-U.S. holder who is claiming the benefits of a treaty may be required to obtain a United States taxpayer identification number and to provide certain documentary evidence issued by foreign governmental authorities to prove residence in the foreign country.
Generally, a non-U.S. holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding taxes on any amount that constitutes capital gain upon the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a Note, provided that (i) the gain is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by the non-U.S. holder (or, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is not attributable to a permanent establishment maintained in the United States by the non-U.S. holder) and (ii) the non-U.S. holder is not an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition and meets certain other conditions (unless such holder is eligible for relief under an applicable income tax treaty). Certain other exceptions may be applicable, and a non-U.S. holder should consult its tax advisor in this regard.
A Note that is held by an individual who, at the time of death, is not a citizen or resident of the United States (as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) generally will not be subject to the U.S. federal estate tax, unless, at the time of death, (i) such individual directly or indirectly, actually or constructively, owns ten percent (10%) or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of our stock entitled to vote within the meaning of Section 871(h)(3) of the Code or (ii) such individual’s interest in such Note is effectively connected with the individual’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding.   A U.S. holder (other than an “exempt recipient,” including a corporation and certain other persons who, when required, demonstrate their exempt status) may be subject to backup withholding on, and to information reporting requirements with respect to, payments of principal and interest on, and proceeds from the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a Note. In general, if a non-corporate U.S. holder subject to information reporting fails to furnish a correct taxpayer identification number or otherwise fails to comply with applicable backup withholding requirements, backup withholding at the applicable rate may apply currently at the rate of 24%.
The amount of interest we pay to a non-U.S. holder with respect to a Note will be reported to such non- U.S. Holder and to the IRS annually on an IRS Form 1042-S even if the non-U.S. holder is exempt from the 30% withholding tax described above. Copies of the information returns reporting those payments and the amounts withheld, if any, may also be made available to the tax authorities in the country where the non- U.S. holder is resident under provisions of an applicable income tax treaty or agreement.
In addition, backup withholding tax and certain other information reporting requirements apply to payments of principal and interest on, and proceeds from the sale, exchange, redemption, retirement or other taxable disposition of a Note, unless an exemption applies. Backup withholding and information reporting will not apply to payments we make to a non-U.S. holder if such non-U.S. holder has provided to the applicable withholding agent under penalties of perjury the required certification of their non-U.S. person status as discussed above (and the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that they are a U.S. person) or if the non-U.S. holder is an exempt recipient.
If a non-U.S. holder sells or redeems a Note through a U.S. broker or the U.S. office of a foreign broker, the proceeds from such sale or redemption will be subject to information reporting and backup withholding unless such non-U.S. holder provides a withholding certificate or other appropriate documentary evidence establishing that such non-U.S. holder is not a U.S. person to the broker and such broker does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such non-U.S. holder is a U.S. person, or the non-U.S. holder is an exempt recipient eligible for an exemption from information reporting and backup withholding. If a non-U.S. holder sells or redeems a Note through the foreign office of a broker who is a U.S. person or has certain enumerated connections with the United States, the proceeds from such sale or redemption will be subject to information reporting unless the non-U.S. holder provides to such broker a withholding certificate or other appropriate documentary evidence establishing that the non-U.S. holder is not a U.S. person and such broker does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such evidence is false, or the non-U.S. holder is an exempt recipient eligible for an exemption from information reporting. In circumstances where
 
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information reporting by the foreign office of such a broker is required, backup withholding will be required only if the broker has actual knowledge that the non-U.S. holder is a U.S. person.
You should consult your tax advisor regarding the qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and information reporting and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption, if applicable. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a beneficial owner generally would be allowed as a refund or a credit against such beneficial owner’s U.S. federal income tax provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
Legislation commonly referred to as the “Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act,” or “FATCA,” generally imposes a 30% withholding tax on payments of certain types of income to foreign financial institutions (“FFIs”) unless such FFIs either (i) enter into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury to report certain required information with respect to accounts held by U.S. persons (or held by foreign entities that have U.S. persons as substantial owners) or (ii) reside in a jurisdiction that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement (“IGA”) with the United States to collect and share such information and are in compliance with the terms of such IGA and any enabling legislation or regulations. Under proposed regulations promulgated by the Treasury Department on December 13, 2018, which state that taxpayers may rely on the proposed regulations until final regulations are issued, this withholding tax will not apply to the gross proceeds from any sale or disposition of the Notes. The information required to be reported includes the identity and taxpayer identification number of each account holder that is a U.S. person and transaction activity within the holder’s account. In addition, subject to certain exceptions, this legislation also imposes a 30% withholding on payments to foreign entities that are not FFIs unless the foreign entity certifies that it does not have a greater than 10% U.S. owner or provides the withholding agent with identifying information on each greater than 10% U.S. owner. Depending on the status of a non-U.S. holder and the status of the intermediaries through which they hold the Notes, non-U.S. holders could be subject to this 30% withholding tax with respect to interest paid on the Notes. Under certain circumstances, a non-U.S. holder might be eligible for refunds or credits of such taxes.
You should consult your own tax advisor with respect to the particular tax consequences to you of an investment in the Notes, including the possible effect of any pending legislation or proposed regulations.
 
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Underwriting
Oppenheimer & Co. Inc. is acting as representative of the underwriters named below. Subject to the terms and conditions stated in the underwriting agreement dated June [•], 2024, each underwriter named below has agreed to purchase, and we have agreed to sell to that underwriter, the aggregate principal amount of Notes set forth opposite the underwriter’s name.
Underwriter
Principal
amount
of notes
Oppenheimer & Co. Inc.
$ [•]
Total
$ [•]
The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the Notes included in this offering are subject to approval of legal matters by counsel and to other conditions. The underwriters are obligated to purchase all the Notes if they purchase any of the Notes.
The underwriters have agreed to purchase the Notes from us at 98% of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes, which will result in aggregate proceeds to us of $[•] million before deducting expenses payable by us.
The underwriters propose to offer some of the Notes directly to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this Prospectus Supplement and some of the Notes to dealers at the public offering price less a concession not to exceed [•]% of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes. The underwriting discount of $[•] per Note is equal to 2.0% of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes. If less than all the Notes are sold at the offering price, the representative may change the public offering price and other selling terms. Investors must pay for any notes purchased in this offering on or before June [•], 2024. The representative has advised us that the underwriters do not intend to confirm any sales to any accounts over which they exercise discretionary authority.
In addition, we have agreed to pay Oppenheimer a fee in connection with any secured, unsecured, senior or subordinated term loan or credit facility that we consummate if certain conditions are met. The amount of the fee is two percent (2%) of the total amount available to us under such term loan or credit facility, to be paid as and when funds are drawn by us; provided, however, the initial payment due at the closing of the term loan or credit facility will be a minimum of $1.25 million.
In addition, if we appoint Oppenheimer as our Sales Agent in connection with our existing at-the-market offering, we are entitled to a $100,000 credit against commissions payable to Oppenheimer under the At Market Issuance Sales Agreement relating to that offering.
We have agreed that, for a period of 60 days from the date of this Prospectus Supplement, we will not, without the prior written consent of Oppenheimer & Co. Inc., on behalf of the underwriters, offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell or otherwise dispose of or agree to sell or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly or hedge any debt securities issued or guaranteed by us or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for debt securities issued or guaranteed by us or file any registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to any of the foregoing. Oppenheimer & Co. Inc., in its sole discretion may release any of the securities subject to these lock-up agreements at any time without notice.
The 60-day period in the preceding paragraph will be extended if (i) during the last 17 days of the 60- day period we issue an earnings release or material news or a material event relating to us occurs or (ii) prior to the expiration of the 60-day period, we announce that we will release earnings results during the 16-day period beginning on the last day of the 60-day period, in which case the restrictions described in the preceding sentence will continue to apply until the expiration of the 18-day period beginning on the issuance of the earnings release or the announcement of the material news or the occurrence of the material event.
We intend to list the Notes on the NYSE American. We expect trading in the Notes on the NYSE American to begin within 30 days after the original issue date under the trading symbol “SACH29.” We offer no assurances that an active trading market for the Notes will develop and continue after the offering.
The following table shows the public offering price, the underwriting discounts and commissions to be paid to the underwriters and the proceeds, before expenses, to us in connection with this offering.
 
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Per Note
Total
Public offering price
100.00% $     
Underwriting discount (sales load) paid by us(1)
2.00% $
Estimated proceeds to us, before expenses
98.00% $
(1)
The expenses associated with the offering, including the underwriting discount, are paid by us and are ultimately borne by our shareholders. 
We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for their reasonable out-of-pocket expenses (including the reasonable fees and out-of-pocket expenses of counsel up to a maximum of $100,000.
We estimate expenses payable by us in connection with this offering, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions referred to above, will be approximately $[•].
We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make because of any of those liabilities.
Certain underwriters may make a market in the Notes. No underwriter is, however, obligated to conduct market-making activities and any such activities may be discontinued at any time without notice, at the sole discretion of the underwriter. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of, or the trading market for, the Notes as a result of any market-making activities undertaken by any underwriter. This Prospectus Supplement is to be used by any underwriter in connection with the offering and, during the period in which a prospectus must be delivered, with offers and sales of Notes in market-making transactions in the over-the- counter market at negotiated prices related to prevailing market prices at the time of the sale.
In connection with the offering, Oppenheimer & Co. Inc., on behalf of the underwriters, may purchase and sell Notes in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, syndicate covering transactions and stabilizing transactions. Short sales involve syndicate sales of Notes in excess of the number of Notes to be purchased by the underwriters in the offering, which creates a syndicate short position. The underwriters may also make “naked” short sales of Notes. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing Notes in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of Notes in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of bids for or purchases of Notes in the open market while the offering is in progress.
The underwriters also may impose a penalty bid. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when Oppenheimer & Co. Inc., repurchases Notes originally sold by that syndicate member to cover syndicate short positions or make stabilizing purchases.
Any of these activities may have the effect of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the Notes, including the Notes. They may also cause the price of the Notes, including the Notes, to be higher than the price that would otherwise exist in the open market in the absence of these transactions. The underwriters may conduct these transactions on the NYSE American, or in the over-the-counter market, or otherwise. If the underwriters commence any of these transactions, they may discontinue them at any time.
A Prospectus Supplement in electronic format may be made available on the websites maintained by one or more of the underwriters. The representative may agree to allocate a number of Notes to underwriters for sale to their online brokerage account holders. The representative will allocate Notes to underwriters that may make Internet distributions on the same basis as other allocations. In addition, Notes may be sold by the underwriters to securities dealers who resell Notes to online brokerage account holders.
Certain underwriters may, from time to time, engage in transactions with or perform services for us, our investment adviser and our affiliates in the ordinary course of business.
The principal business address of Oppenheimer & Co. Inc. is 85 Broad Street, 23rd Floor, New York, NY 10004.
Settlement
We expect that delivery of the Notes will be made against payment therefor on or about June [•], 2024, which will be the second business day following the date of the pricing of the notes. Under Rule 15c6-1 under
 
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the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise.
Other Jurisdictions
The Notes may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this Prospectus Supplement or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any Notes be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this Prospectus Supplement comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restriction relating to the offering and the distribution of this Prospectus Supplement. This Prospectus Supplement does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy the Notes in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.
Potential Conflicts of Interest
The underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. Certain of the underwriters and their respective affiliates have, from time to time, performed, and may in the future perform, various financial advisory and investment banking services for us, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses, including acting as underwriters for our securities offerings. In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers and such investment and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of our company. The underwriters and their respective affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.
Legal Matters
The validity of the shares offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Kurzman Eisenberg Corbin & Lever, LLP, White Plains, New York. Certain partners of Kurzman Eisenberg Corbin &Lever, LLP own in the aggregate 52,000 common shares. Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for the distribution agent by Blank Rome LLP, New York, New York.
Experts
Our financial statements as of, and for each of the years ended, December 31, 2023 and 2022 have been so incorporated by reference in reliance on the report of Hoberman & Lesser CPA’s, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, included in this Prospectus Supplement given on the authority of such firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
 
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Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation By Reference
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the shares offered hereby. This Prospectus Supplement, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement or the exhibits and schedules filed therewith. For further information about us and our shares offered hereby, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed thereto. Statements contained in this Prospectus Supplement regarding the contents of any contract or any other document that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete, and each such statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the full text of such contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement.
We are a reporting company and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other material with the SEC. You may read and copy our reports, proxy statements and other information, including the registration statement of which this Prospectus Supplement is a part at the Public Reference Room of the SEC, 100 F Street, N. E., Room 1580, Washington D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the public reference rooms by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is www.sec.gov.
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this Prospectus Supplement, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this Prospectus Supplement, except for any information superseded by information in this Prospectus Supplement or any document that we file in the future with the SEC. This Prospectus Supplement incorporates by reference the documents set forth below that we have previously filed with the SEC and all documents that we file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (other than any portion of the respective filings that are furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of a Current Report on Form 8-K (including exhibits related thereto) or other applicable SEC rules, rather than filed) after the date of this Prospectus Supplement from their respective filing dates. These documents contain important information about us, our business and our finances.
Document
Filed
Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended March 31, 2024
Current Reports on Form 8-K
February 29, 2024, April 2, 2024, May 10, 2024, June 3, 2024 and June 7, 2024
Description common shares contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A
Description of the Series A Preferred Stock contained in Registration Statement on Form 8-A
Description of 7.75% 2025 Notes contained in Registration Statement on Form 8-A
Description of 7.125% June 2024 Notes contained in Registration Statement on Form 8-A
Description of 6.875% December 2024 notes contained in Registration Statement on Form 8-A
Description of 7.75% 2025 Notes contained in Registration Statement on Form 8-A
Description of 6.00% 2026 notes contained in Registration Statement on Form 8-A
Description of 6.00% March 2027 Notes contained in Registration Statement on Form 8-A
Description of 7.125% June 2027 Notes contained in Registration Statement on Form 8-A
Description of 8.00% September 2027 Notes contained in Registration
 
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Document
Filed
Statement on Form 8-A
At your request, either orally or in writing, we will provide you with a copy of any or all documents which are incorporated by reference. Such documents will be provided to you free of charge, but will not contain any exhibits, unless those exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into those documents. Requests should be addressed to Sachem Capital Corp., 568 East Main Street, Branford, Connecticut 06405, Attention: Chief Financial Officer, telephone number (203) 433-4736.
 
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PROSPECTUS
$300,000,000
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_sachemcapital-4c.jpg]
Common Shares, Preferred Shares, Debt Securities, Guarantees of Debt Securities, Warrants and Units
We may, from time to time, offer, in one or more series or classes, separately or together, and in amounts, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more supplements to this prospectus, the following securities:

common shares, par value $0.001 per share;

preferred shares, par value $0.001 per share;

warrants to purchase common shares or preferred shares;

debt securities;

guarantees of debt securities; or

units consisting of two or more of the classes of securities listed above.
We refer to the common shares, preferred shares, warrants, debt securities and units collectively as the “Securities” in this base prospectus.
This base prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to the Securities and the general manner in which they may be offered. The specific terms of any Securities to be offered, and the specific manner in which they may be offered will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement will also contain information, where applicable, about the material federal income tax considerations relating to, and any listing on a securities exchange of, the Securities covered by such prospectus supplement. It is important that you read both this base prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in the Securities.
The Securities may be offered and sold to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, on a continuous or delayed basis. The prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the plan of distribution and set forth the names of any agents, dealers or underwriters involved in the sale of the securities. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 67 for more information on this topic. No Securities may be sold without delivery of a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of the Securities.
Our common shares are listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “SACH.” On February 17, 2022, the closing sale price of the common shares on NYSE American was $4.96 per share. In addition, we have (i) four series of five-year unsecured unsubordinated notes listed on the NYSE American under the symbols “SCCB,” “SACC,” “SCCC” and “SCCD” and (ii) a 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share, listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “SACHPRA.” None of the other Securities are currently listed on any exchange or quoted on any other trading venue or system.
See “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed March 31, 2021, with respect to our year ended December 31, 2020, in Item 1A of each subsequently filed Quarterly Report on form 10-Q (which documents are incorporated by reference herein) as well as the other information contained or incorporated by reference in this base prospectus or any prospectus supplement hereto before making a decision to invest in the Securities. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation By Reference” on page 70 of this base prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the Securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is February 25, 2022.

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You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this base prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or additional information, you should not rely on it. We are not making an offer to sell Securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information appearing in this base prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of their respective dates or on other dates which are specified in those documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
For investors outside the United States: We have not done anything that would permit any offering under this base prospectus or any prospectus supplement to this prospectus or possession or distribution of this base prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this base prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of Securities and the distribution of this base prospectus outside the United States.
 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This base prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, in accordance with General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3, using a “shelf” registration process for the delayed offering and sale of Securities pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under the shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, sell the Securities described in this base prospectus in one or more offerings. This base prospectus provides you with a general description of the Securities we may offer. Each time we sell Securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement containing specific information about the terms of the Securities being offered and the manner in which they will be offered. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this base prospectus.
This base prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not contain all the information included in the registration statement. We have omitted parts of the registration statement in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. For further information, we refer you to the registration statement on Form S-3 of which this base prospectus is a part, including its exhibits. Statements contained in this base prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement about the provisions or contents of any agreement or other document are not necessarily complete. If the SEC’s rules and regulations require that an agreement or document be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, please see that agreement or document for a complete description of these matters.
You should read this base prospectus together with any additional information you may need to make your investment decision. You should also read and carefully consider the information in the documents we have referred you to in “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” below. Information incorporated by reference after the date of this base prospectus may add, update or change information contained in this base prospectus. Any information in such subsequent filings that is inconsistent with this base prospectus will supersede the information in this base prospectus or any earlier prospectus supplement.
The industry and market data and other statistical information, if any, contained in this base prospectus and in the documents that we incorporate by reference are based on our own estimates, independent publications, government publications, reports by market research firms or other published independent sources, and, in each case, are believed by us to be reasonable estimates. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we have not independently verified the information.
All references in this base prospectus to “us,” “we,” or “our,” are references to Sachem Capital Corp. and its predecessor, Sachem Capital Partners, LLC, or SCP, unless specified otherwise.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The information below is only a summary of more detailed information included elsewhere in or incorporated by reference in this base prospectus. This summary may not contain all the information that is important to you or that you should consider before deciding to invest in our securities. Please read this entire base prospectus, including the risk factors, as well as the information incorporated by reference in this base prospectus and any related prospectus supplement, carefully.
Overview
We are a Connecticut-based real estate finance company that specializes in originating, underwriting, funding, servicing and managing a portfolio of short-term (i.e., three years or less) loans secured by first mortgage liens on real property. From our inception, in December 2010, through our initial public offering (the “IPO”), in February 2017, we operated as a limited liability company. On February 9, 2017, we completed the IPO, the primary purpose of which was to raise equity capital to fund mortgage loans and expand our mortgage loan portfolio and to diversify our ownership so that we could qualify, for federal income tax purposes, as a real estate investment trust, or REIT.
We believe that, since consummation of the IPO, we met all the requirements to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes and elected to be taxed as a REIT beginning with our 2017 tax year. As a REIT, we are entitled to claim deductions for distributions of taxable income to our shareholders thereby eliminating any corporate tax on such taxable income. Any taxable income not distributed to shareholders is subject to tax at the regular corporate tax rates and may also be subject to a 4% excise tax to the extent it exceeds 10% of our total taxable income. To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute each year at least 90% of our taxable income. As a REIT, we may also be subject to federal excise taxes and state taxes.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe our competitive strengths include:

History of successful operations.   We commenced operations as a limited liability company in December 2010 with three investors and limited equity capital. Since our inception through September 30, 2021, we have originated approximately 1,617 mortgage loans having an aggregate principal amount of approximately $540.4 million. Immediately prior to the IPO, we had approximately 155 investors and $27 million of members’ equity. Since we became a public company, as of September 30, 2021, we have raised approximately an additional $81.2 million (excluding the IPO proceeds) in equity capital and approximately $114.5 million of debt capital. Similarly, since the IPO, our mortgage loan portfolio has grown from approximately $33.8 million to approximately $220.0 million at September 30, 2021. In addition, at September 30, 2021, we had approximately $19.2 million of cash and cash equivalents. We have reported net profits in every quarter since our IPO.

Long-standing relationships.   We have ongoing relationships with many of our borrowers. At September 30, 2021, our loan portfolio includes 161 loans having an aggregate principal balance of approximately $31.8 million that were extensions of prior loans. Customers are also a referral source for new borrowers. As long as these borrowers remain active real estate investors, they provide us with an advantage in securing new business and help us maintain a pipeline to attractive new opportunities that may not be available to many of our competitors or to the general market.

Competent workforce.   Our employees are multi-skilled professionals who have a strong “team” orientation, a “continuous process improvement” mentality, and an authentic desire to learn all aspects of our business and contribute wherever and however they are needed.

Knowledge of the market.   We have an intimate knowledge of the Connecticut real estate market, which enhances our ability to identify attractive opportunities and helps distinguish us from many of our competitors.

Disciplined lending.   We seek to maximize our risk-adjusted returns, and preserve and protect capital, through our disciplined and credit-based approach. We utilize rigorous underwriting and
 
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loan closing procedures that include numerous checks and balances to evaluate the risks and merits of each potential transaction. We seek to protect and preserve capital by carefully evaluating the condition of the property, the location of the property, the value of the property and other forms of collateral.

Vertically-integrated loan origination platform.   We manage and control the loan process from origination through closing with our own personnel or independent third parties, including legal counsel and appraisers, with whom we have long relationships. Together, these individuals constitute a team highly experienced in credit evaluation, underwriting and loan structuring. We also believe that our procedures and experience allow us to execute opportunities quickly and efficiently.

Structuring flexibility.   As a small, non-bank, geographically focused real estate lender, we can move quickly and have much more flexibility than traditional lenders to structure loans to suit the needs of our clients. Our ability to customize financing structures to meet borrowers’ needs is one of our key business strengths.

No legacy issues.   We are not burdened by distressed legacy real estate assets.
Market Opportunity
Notwithstanding the spread of the novel corona virus known as COVID-19, which had a severe adverse impact on certain segments of the U.S. and global economy, its impact on our business was negligible. Even now, as concerns mount over the impact that the Omicron and Delta variants of the virus will have on the global economic recovery, we believe that there will continue to be a significant market opportunity for a well-capitalized “hard money” lender to originate attractively priced loans to small-scale real estate developers with strong equity positions (i.e., good collateral), particularly in Connecticut where, traditionally, real estate values in many neighborhoods have been stable and substandard properties are improved, rehabilitated and renovated. We further believe that there are many opportunities for us to expand our business into new markets. We also believe developers will prefer to borrow from us rather than other lending sources because of our flexibility in structuring loans to suit their needs, our lending criteria, which places greater emphasis on the value of the collateral rather than the property cash flow or credit of the borrower, and our ability to close quickly.
Our Objectives and Strategy and Outlook for 2022
Our primary business objective remains to grow our loan portfolio while protecting and preserving capital in a manner that provides for attractive risk-adjusted returns to our shareholders over the long term principally through dividends. We intend to achieve this objective by accelerating profitable growth and driving operational excellence. To accelerate profitable growth, we will continue to focus on selectively originating, managing, and servicing a portfolio of first mortgage real estate loans designed to generate attractive risk-adjusted returns across a variety of market conditions and economic cycles. We are also targeting larger-value commercial loans with strong, experienced sponsors. To drive operational excellence, we have embarked on a broad change management initiative to review, assess, and upgrade — or transform if necessary — our existing operational processes, from workflows and employee roles/responsibilities to decision trees and data collection forms. To that end, in the third quarter of 2021 we rolled out a new underwriting model that automated the production of our loan documentation — term sheets, proof of funds, etc. The automation allows for more accurate and timely processing of loans, thus increasing loan production while keeping our employee headcount down. In addition, we have begun to focus on developing relationships with larger scale wholesale brokers, furthering our efforts to attract larger borrowers with better credit quality. We believe that our ability to react quickly to the needs of borrowers, our flexibility in terms of structuring loans to meet the needs of borrowers, our knowledge of the primary real estate markets we lend in, our expertise in “hard money” lending and our focus on newly originated first mortgage loans, should enable us to achieve our primary objective. Nevertheless, we remain flexible to take advantage of other real estate opportunities that may arise from time to time, whether they relate to the mortgage market or to direct or indirect investments in real estate.
Our strategy to achieve this objective also includes the following:
 
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capitalize on opportunities created by the long-term structural changes in the real estate lending market and the continuing lack of liquidity in the commercial and investment real estate markets;

take advantage of the prevailing economic environment and current economic, political and social trends that may impact real estate lending, as well as the outlook for real estate in general and particular asset classes;

remain flexible to capitalize on changing sets of investment opportunities that may be present in the various points of an economic cycle; and

continue to operate and qualify as a REIT and for an exemption from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or the Investment Company Act.
In terms of our outlook for 2022, the biggest challenge remains the unknown impact of COVID-19 and future actions that may be taken to contain the spread of COVID-19. Keeping our workforce healthy and safe is our number one priority and we are following the updated guidelines and recommendations issued by the State of Connecticut and Centers for Disease Control. We continue to encourage employees to stay home when sick and encourage working from home when possible. In the event of a positive COVID-19 test result, Sachem employees inform management and follow state testing and contact tracing protocols. We have not been immune to the virus striking our employees and their family members. Fortunately, none of these occurrences has been life-threatening. However, to mitigate the risk of office closure and to ensure business continuity, our employees are equipped so they can seamlessly work remotely. This remote work set-up has proven to be effective since, at times during the pandemic, employees had to self-isolate based on their own health condition or that of an immediate family member. While loan processing and funding may have been marginally delayed, there was no material adverse impact to the service levels we provided our borrowers.
In the event we are forced to close our physical office, we think it likely that there would be some adverse impact. For example, the underwriting process would continue to function but would take longer to complete without immediate access to background and credit profiles. Loan committee meetings would continue to be held virtually (as they are under normal conditions) but the loan approval process may incur delay or not be as thorough and efficient as in the past. In addition, we may not be able to meet with borrowers or potential borrowers, including physical property inspections, which could adversely impact our ability to service our loans, monitor compliance and originate new loans. Finally, the filing of loan documents with the various recording offices may be delayed.
In summary, the consequences may include one or more of the following:

increase the amount of time necessary to review loan applications, structure loans and fund loans;

adversely impact the ability of borrowers to remain current on their obligations;

reduce the rate of prepayments;

delay the completion of renovation projects in-process;

inhibit the ability of borrowers to sell their properties to repay their obligation to us; and

delay foreclosure or other judicial proceedings necessary to enforce our rights.
Other factors that we believe will impact our business in 2022 include the following:
Increased competition.   In the past, our primary competitors were other non-bank real estate finance companies (similar to Sachem Capital Corp.) and banks and other financial institutions. Our principal competitive advantages included our size and our ability to address the needs of borrowers in terms of timing and structuring loan transactions. More recently, we are encountering competition from private equity funds, hedge funds and other specialty finance entities funded by investment banks, asset managers, private equity funds and hedge funds. Clearly, the primary driver for these new market participants is the need to generate yield. They are well-funded and aggressive in terms of pricing.
Borrower expectations.   The new competitive landscape is shifting the negotiating leverage in favor of borrowers. As borrowers have more choices, they are demanding better terms. As of September 30, 2021,
 
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the yield on our portfolio was 11.92% compared to 12.28% for the same period in 2020. We expect rate compression will continue into the beginning of 2022.
Property value fluctuations.   We remain aware of property value market cycles and utilize a dashboard of indicators to track property value trends. Our response to this development would be to adhere to our strict loan-to-value ratio and other underwriting guidelines and aggressively enforce our rights when loans go into default. By judiciously relying on our dashboard of leading indicators and continuing to make decisions in a sound and proper manner, we see no reason to expect any negative outcome regarding our business operations and growth. Some of our indicators within our dashboard are interest rate changes impacting mortgage rates, days-on-market, pending sales, NAHB’s Housing Market Index, and the Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey, among others.
Increased operating expenses.   We expect our operating expenses for 2022 to be higher than they were in 2021 due to our higher debt load. In addition, we expect our aggregate dividend payments will be higher in 2022 than in 2021 due to an increase in the number of common shares and preferred shares outstanding. Finally, our compensation expense has increased as we hired new personnel and increased salaries of existing employees to administer a larger loan portfolio and more complex loan transactions.
Unfunded commitments.   Most of our loans are funded in full at closing. However, where all or a portion of the loan proceeds are to be used to fund the costs of renovating or constructing improvements on the property, only a portion of the loan may be funded at closing. At September 30, 2021, our mortgage loan portfolio included 157 loans with future funding obligations, in the aggregate principal amount of approximately $61.7 million, compared to 105 loans in the aggregate principal amount of approximately $13.3 million at September 30, 2020. The increase is due to an increase in construction loan originations, a large portion of which is in the Florida market. Advances under these loans are funded against requests supported by all required documentation (including lien waivers) as and when needed to pay contractors and other costs of construction. In order to deal with these obligations, we are compelled to maintain higher cash balances, which could adversely impact our financial performance.
Despite the challenges we faced in 2021, the changing dynamics of the real estate finance marketplace and the impact of COVID-19, we continue to believe in the viability of our business model. Our goal is, and has always been, to continue to grow our mortgage loan portfolio and increase our loan profitability, while at the same time maintain or improve on our existing underwriting and loan criteria. Specifically, we believe that the following factors will, in fact, help us deal with the uncertainties expected in 2022.

From January through September 30, 2021, we funded approximately $154.8 million of mortgage loans including loan modifications and construction draws. The sources for these loans and draws included cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2020 (approximately $19.4 million), short term marketable securities at December 31, 2020 (approximately $37.3 million), net proceeds from the sale of our Series A Preferred Stock (approximately $45.5 million), net proceeds from the sale of common shares (approximately $30.9 million) and loan repayments (approximately $90.5 million). As of September 30, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents and investment securities of approximately $75.3 million. We plan to use these funds during the remainder of 2021 to increase our mortgage loan portfolio. As of October 22, 2021 we had issued term sheets for new loans in the aggregate principal amount of approximately $75.6 million. Some of these loans may never get funded for a variety of reasons. In addition, as of December 6, 2021, we had applications in-house for loans totaling approximately $117.6 million. None of these loans have been approved and none may ever be approved.

Beginning in the second quarter of 2021, we significantly reduced our leverage, thereby mitigating the risks should economic conditions deteriorate. At September 30, 2021, our capital structure was 49.3% debt and 50.7% equity compared to 63% debt and 37% equity at March 31, 2021. The change was accomplished by selling equity — common shares and preferred shares — rather than by reducing our indebtedness. Our total indebtedness at September 30, 2021 was approximately $144.6 million, including deferred financing costs. Of this amount, approximately $30.1 million is the outstanding balance on the Wells Fargo Margin Loan Account, which is currently accruing interest at the relatively modest rate of 1.5%. The remaining indebtedness, approximately $114.5 million, is the aggregate outstanding principal balance on our unsubordinated unsecured notes, which have a
 
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weighted average interest rate of 7.36% per annum. In addition, in December 2021, we issued a fourth tranche of unsecured unsubordinated notes in the original principal amount of $51.75 million, increasing the total amount of our outstanding note indebtedness to approximately $166.3 million at December 31, 2021. The notes provide us with operational flexibility. Other than interest, they do not have any significant costs and expenses, such as legal fees, collateral maintenance fees, unused facility fees, processing fees and the additional personnel costs relating to reporting and compliance. Second, they only have one financial covenant — an asset coverage ratio of 150%. There are no limitations in terms of the size of the mortgage loans we choose to fund, the markets in which we choose to operate and the nature of the collateral. Finally, the notes are unsecured.

On July 21, 2021, we consummated a $200 million master repurchase financing facility (“Churchill Facility”) with Churchill MRA Funding I LLC (“Churchill”), a subsidiary of Churchill Real Estate, a vertically integrated real estate finance company based in New York, New York. Under the terms of the Master Repurchase Agreement entered into in connection with the Churchill Facility (the “MRA”), we have the right, but not the obligation, to sell mortgage loans to Churchill, and Churchill has the right, but not the obligation, to purchase those loans. In addition, we have the right and, in some instances the obligation, to repurchase those loans from Churchill. The amount that Churchill will pay for each mortgage loan it purchases will vary based on the attributes of the loan and various other circumstances. The repurchase price is calculated by applying an interest factor to the purchase price of the mortgage loan. We also granted Churchill a first priority security interest on the mortgage loans sold to Churchill to secure our repurchase obligation. The cost of capital under the Churchill Facility is equal to the sum of (a) the greater of (i) 0.25% and (ii) the 30-day LIBOR plus (b) 3% – 4%, depending on the aggregate principal amount of the mortgage loans held by Churchill at that time. The MRA contains other terms and conditions, including representations and warranties, covenants and agreements typically found in these types of financing arrangements. In addition, we agreed that we will not (A) (i) pay any dividends or make distributions in excess of 90% of our taxable income, (ii) incur any indebtedness or (iii) purchase any of our capital stock, unless, in any case, we have an asset coverage ratio of at least 150%; and (B) have unencumbered cash and cash equivalents in an amount equal to or greater than 2.50% of the amount of our repurchase obligations. Churchill has the right to terminate the Churchill Facility at any time upon 180 days prior notice to us. At such time, we have an additional 180 days after termination to repurchase all the mortgage loans held by Churchill. • At December 31, 2021, we had an outstanding balance of approximately $19.1 million under the Churchill Facility.

We have made the necessary adjustments to our operations to replace our former co-chief executive officer by hiring new employees and re-assigning existing employees to new tasks. Our current senior management team includes our chief executive and chief financial officer, and a chief investment officer and a vice president -finance and operations. In addition, we have added personnel in operations, accounting and administration to accommodate the growth of our business. Although these new hires will result in increased compensation, they were and will continue to be necessary to accommodate our growth and to maintain our ability to continue to service our borrowers and manage our business without sacrificing quality.

We have adjusted and refined our business strategy to address changes in the marketplace and our growth to-date. Specifically, we continue to strengthen our geographic footprint beyond Connecticut and the rest of New England with particular emphasis on Florida and Texas. In addition to the aforementioned states, our current mortgage loan portfolio includes loans secured by properties in New York, Arizona, South Carolina and California. We continue to look for opportunities in new markets that meet our underwriting and loan criteria.

We are funding larger loans than we have in the past that are secured by what we believe are higher-quality properties that are being developed by borrowers that we deem to be more stable and successful. In addition, we believe the migration to these types of loans will offset any rate compression and help us maintain a low foreclosure rate.

To leverage our expertise in real estate finance and our capital resources, on the one hand, and to capitalize on lending opportunities in specific markets, on the other, we plan to partner and invest with local “hard money” real estate lenders creating satellite offices under the “Sachem” influence. An
 
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advantage of this model is that these local lenders subscribe to a “Sachem” model using their own personal assets and those of other investor partners to fund loan opportunities and operations which increases their capital commitment to the opportunity. Under these arrangements, we would provide loan funding capital as well as our underwriting and servicing expertise and our local partners would provide us with “boots on the ground” lending opportunities. We recently leased office space in Austin, Texas on a short-term basis for nominal rent, and we have a sales and marketing campaign, primarily via Google advertising, at nominal cost, in the hopes of building a robust pipeline to supplement our operator and to develop the Sachem brand in Texas. We retained the services of one person to oversee our Austin office. He is not an employee and will be compensated solely upon our successful consummation of a loan opportunity with a borrower. We also have had preliminary discussions with local lenders in other markets, including Orlando, Florida, Greenwich, Connecticut, Charlotte, North Carolina and Atlanta, Georgia. We plan to continue these discussions and scout other locations as well. However, we have not yet entered into any definitive agreement and we cannot assure you that we will be able to consummate any such partnerships or joint ventures on terms that will be acceptable to all parties.

On March 24, 2021, we loaned $25,000 to our wholly-owned subsidiary, Sachem Sponsor LLC. Sachem Sponsor used those funds to purchase 2,156,250 shares of Class B common stock of Sachem Acquisition Corp. (“Sachem Acquisition”), a newly organized blank check company formed under the laws of Maryland in February 2021 for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses. Sachem Acquisition’s registration statement on Form S-1 (the “SAC Offering”) is currently under SEC review. In connection with the SAC Offering, Sachem Sponsor has committed to purchase up to 3,795,000 private placement warrants at a price of $1.00 per private placement warrant for an aggregate purchase price of up to $3,795,000 (assuming the over-allotment option is exercised in full). Each private placement warrant will be identical to the warrants included in the units sold in the SAC Offering, except as described in the Form S-1. The private placement warrants will be sold in a private placement that will close simultaneously with the closing of the SAC Offering.
Operational and Financial Overview
Our loans typically have a maximum initial term of one to three years and bear interest at a fixed rate of 5% to 14.2% per year and a default rate of 18% per year. We usually receive origination fees, or “points,” ranging from 2% to 5% of the original principal amount of the loan as well as other fees relating to underwriting, funding and managing the loan, such as inspection fees. Since we treat an extension or renewal of an existing loan as a new loan, we also receive additional “points” and other loan-related fees in connection with those transactions. Interest is always payable monthly in arrears. As a matter of policy, we do not make any loans if the loan-to value ratio exceeds 70%. In the case of construction loans, the loan-to-value ratio is based on the post-construction value of the property. We rely on readily available market data, including appraisals when available or timely, tax assessment rolls, recent sales transactions and brokers to evaluate the value of the collateral. Finally, we have adopted a policy that limits the maximum amount of any loan we fund to a single borrower or a group of affiliated borrowers to 10% of the aggregate amount of our loan portfolio, taking into consideration the loan under consideration, unless otherwise approved by our board of directors. At September 30, 2021, we had one borrower whose outstanding loans, in the aggregate principal amount of $22.3 million, represented 10.2% of our mortgage loan portfolio. In addition, we had a second borrower with loans having an aggregate outstanding principal amount of $10.0 million, which represented approximately 4.6% of our mortgage loan portfolio. However, our total funding obligations to this borrower are approximately $23.4 million. On a fully funded basis, the total amount outstanding to this borrower would have represented approximately 10.0% of our mortgage loan portfolio as of September 30, 2021. Our revenue consists primarily of interest earned on our loan portfolio. As of September 30, 2021, our capital structure was approximately 49.3% debt and 50.7% equity. Most of our debt, approximately $114.5 million, is unsecured unsubordinated 5-year notes. The weighted average interest rate on these notes is 7.36%. In addition, we had a balance of approximately $30.1 million at September 30, 2021 under the Wells Fargo Margin Loan Account. The outstanding balance on this loan bears interest at a rate equal to 1.75% below the prime rate. The interest rate on this loan as of September 30, 2021 was 1.5%.
 
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In addition, our net income for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 has been adversely impacted by a reduction in the yield on our mortgage loan portfolio as well as $90.5 million of loan payoffs during the nine month period compared to $55 million for all of 2020. In the first nine months of 2021, we realized faster payoff of investment “fix and flip” loans with these projects coming to fruition quicker due to a stronger real estate market and, we believe, our sound underwriting and analysis of each project. The velocity with which our loans are paid off reflects the health of our portfolio. Despite these payoffs, we were able to redeploy the capital into new loans, boosting the yield to our shareholders by recognizing origination fees over shorter durations than originally underwritten. Our strategy continues to be to adhere to our current underwriting guidelines, which we believe will allow us to continue to grow our loan portfolio while protecting and preserving capital in a manner that provides attracted risk-adjusted returns to our shareholders.
For the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, the yield on our mortgage loan portfolio was 11.92% and 12.28%, respectively. For this purpose, yield only takes into account the stated interest rate on the mortgage note adjusted to the default rate, if applicable. We believe the interest rate compression will continue to be a factor for the remainder of 2021 and at least into the beginning of 2022 as we implement our new strategy focusing on larger loans, secured by higher quality properties being developed by more seasoned developers with a history of successful development projects. On the other hand, since the interest rate on our outstanding indebtedness is fixed, we have reduced the risk on interest rate compression if and when interest rates begin to increase. That will enable us to continue to focus on growth and building market share rather than short-term profits and cash flow.
We seek to mitigate some of the risk associated with rising rates by limiting the term of new loans to one year. At September 30, 2021, approximately 87.6% of the mortgage loans in our portfolio had a term of one year or less. If, at the end of the term, the loan is not in default and meets our other underwriting criteria, we will consider an extension or renewal of the loan at our then prevailing interest rate. If interest rates have decreased and we renew a loan at a lower rate, the “spread” between our borrowing costs and the yield on our portfolio will be squeezed and would adversely impact our net income. We cannot assure you that we will be able to increase our rates at any time in the future and we cannot assure you that we can continue to increase our market share.
As a real estate finance company, we deal with a variety of default situations, including breaches of covenants, such as the obligation of the borrower to maintain adequate liability insurance on the mortgaged property, to pay the taxes on the property and to make timely payments to us. As such, we may not be aware that a default occurred. At September 30, 2021, eight of our mortgage loans were the subject of enforcement or collection proceedings. The aggregate amount due on these loans, including principal, unpaid accrued interest and borrower charges, was approximately $892,000, representing approximately 0.4% of our aggregate mortgage loan portfolio. In the case of each of these loans, we have determined the value of the collateral exceeds the aggregate amount due. To date, the aggregate amount of realized losses on our loan portfolio have been de minimis.
Financing Strategy Overview
To continue to grow our business, we must increase the size of our loan portfolio, which requires that we use our existing working capital to fund new loans and raise additional capital either by selling shares of our capital stock or by incurring additional indebtedness. We do not have a policy limiting the amount of indebtedness that we may incur. Thus, our operating income in the future will depend on how much debt we incur and the spread between our cost of funds and the yield on our loan portfolio. Rising interest rates could have an adverse impact on our business if we cannot increase the rates on our loans to offset the increase in our cost of funds and to satisfy investor demand for yield. In addition, rapidly rising interest rates could have an unsettling effect on real estate values, which could compromise some of our collateral.
In December 2021, we sold $51.75 million original principal amount of 6.00% unsecured, unsubordinated notes due 2026 (the “2026 Notes”) in an underwritten offering raising net proceeds of approximately $49.9 million after payment of underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses. The 2026 Notes are unsecured, unsubordinated obligations and rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and future senior unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness. The 2026 Notes are effectively subordinated in right of payment to all existing and future secured indebtedness (including indebtedness that
 
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is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant a security interest) and structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness of our subsidiaries. The 2026 Notes bear interest at the rate of 6.00% per annum beginning on the original issuance date, December 20, 2021, which will be payable quarterly in arrears on March 30, June 30, September 30 and December 30 of each year the 2026 Notes are outstanding, commencing on March 30, 2022. The unpaid principal balance of the 2026 Notes and all accrued but unpaid interest thereon is payable in full on December 30, 2026.
On December 6, 2021, we also commenced a new at-the-market offering pursuant to which we can sell up to $44,925,000 of our common shares (the “New ATM Offering”).
In June 2021 and July 2021, we raised aggregate net proceeds of approximately $45.5 million (after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses) from the sale of 1,903,000 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock in a firm commitment underwritten public offering at a public offering price of $25.00 per share, equal to the liquidation preference. The Series A Preferred Stock is listed on the NYSE American and began trading under the symbol “SACHPRA” on July 6, 2021.
We do not have any formal policy limiting the amount of indebtedness we may incur. Depending on various factors we may, in the future, decide to take on additional debt to expand our mortgage loan origination activities to increase the potential returns to our shareholders. Although we have no pre-set guidelines in terms of leverage ratio, the amount of leverage we will deploy will depend on our assessment of a variety of factors, which may include the liquidity of the real estate market in which most of our collateral is located, employment rates, general economic conditions, the cost of funds relative to the yield curve, the potential for losses and extension risk in our portfolio, the gap between the duration of our assets and liabilities, our opinion regarding the creditworthiness of our borrowers, the value of the collateral underlying our portfolio, and our outlook for interest rates and property values. At September 30, 2021, debt represented approximately 49.3% of our total capital. We intend to maintain a modest amount of leverage for the sole purpose of financing our portfolio and not for speculating on changes in interest rates.
Our total outstanding indebtedness at December 31, 2021, including the 2026 Notes, was approximately $219.3 million, which included a credit line loan of approximately $33.2 million under the Wells Fargo Margin Loan Account, approximately $19.1 million under the Churchill Facility, a $750,000 mortgage payable and four series of unsecured, unsubordinated five-year notes having an aggregate original principal amount of approximately $166.3 million (collectively, the “Existing Notes”), including deferred financing costs. The Existing Notes include notes having an aggregate principal amount of approximately $23.7 million bearing interest at the rate of 7.125% per annum and have a maturity date of June 30, 2024 (the “June 2024 Notes”); notes having an aggregate principal amount of $34.5 million bearing interest at the rate of 6.875% per annum and have a maturity date of December 30, 2024 (the “December 2024 Notes”); notes having an aggregate original principal amount of approximately $56.4 million, bearing interest at the rate of 7.75% per annum and have a maturity date of September 30, 2025 (the “2025 Notes”); and $51.75 million under the 2026 Notes. All four series of Existing Notes are unsecured, unsubordinated obligations and rank equally in right of payment with all our existing and future senior unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness but are effectively subordinated in right of payment to all our existing and future secured indebtedness (including indebtedness that is initially unsecured but to which we subsequently grant a security interest). Interest on all four series of Existing Notes is payable quarterly in arrears on March 30, June 30, September 30 and December 30 of each year the Existing Notes are outstanding.
Each series of Existing Notes was issued pursuant to the Indenture, dated June 21, 2019, and a supplement thereto, which provides for the form and terms, including default provisions and cures, applicable to each series. All four series of Existing Notes are subject to (i) “Defeasance,” which means that, by depositing with a trustee an amount of cash and/or government securities sufficient to pay all principal and interest, if any, on such notes when due and satisfying any additional conditions required under the Indenture, we will be deemed to have been discharged from our obligations under such notes and (ii) an “Asset Coverage Ratio” requirement pursuant to which we may not pay any dividends or make distributions in excess of 90% of our taxable income, incur any indebtedness or purchase any shares of our capital stock unless we have an “Asset Coverage Ratio” of at least 150% after giving effect to the payment of such dividend, the making of such distribution or the incurrence of such indebtedness. “Asset Coverage Ratio” means the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the value of our total assets relative to the aggregate amount of its indebtedness.
 
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We may, at our option, at any time and from time to time, on or after June 30, 2021, in the case of the June 2024 Notes, November 7, 2021, in the case of the December 2024 Notes, September 4, 2022, in the case of the 2025 Notes, and December 20, 2023, in the case of the 2026 Notes, redeem such notes, in whole or in part, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the outstanding principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption. On and after any redemption date, interest will cease to accrue on the redeemed notes.
All four series of Existing Notes trade on the NYSE American. The June 2024 Notes trade under the symbol “SCCB”, the December 2024 Notes trade under the symbol “SACC”, the 2025 Notes trade under the symbol “SCCC” and the December 2026 Notes trade under the symbol “SCCD”.
The Wells Fargo Margin Loan Account, which is secured by our portfolio of short-term securities, has a balance of approximately $30.1 million at September 30, 2021. The outstanding balance on this loan bears interest at a rate equal to 1.75% below the prime rate. The interest rate at September 30, 2021 is 1.5%. At December 31, 2021, the outstanding balance was approximately $33.2 million.
On July 21, 2021, we consummated a $200 million facility with Churchill, a subsidiary of Churchill Real Estate, a vertically integrated real estate finance company based in New York, New York. Under the terms of the Churchill Facility, we have the right, but not the obligation, to sell mortgage loans to Churchill, and Churchill has the right, but not the obligation, to purchase those loans. The cost of capital under the Churchill Facility is equal to the sum of (a) the greater of (i) 0.25% and (ii) the 30-dayLIBOR plus (b) 3% – 4%, depending on the aggregate principal amount of the mortgage loans held by Churchill at that time. Our obligations under the Churchill Facility are secured by a lien on the mortgage loans sold to Churchill. The Churchill Facility gives us the ability to raise capital as needed at a relatively low rate. It also gives us the flexibility to seek other sources of funding. At December 31, 2021, the outstanding balance was approximately $19.1 million.
From October 1, 2021 through December 3, 2021, we sold 3,223,577 common shares in our “at-the-market” offering pursuant to a prospectus supplement, dated April 9, 2021, to our shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-236097), raising total net proceeds of approximately $18.9 million.
Recent Financing Developments

From December 7, 2021 through February 11, 2022, we sold 3,748,391 common shares in the New ATM Offering raising total net proceeds of approximately $21.7 million.
REIT Qualification
We believe that we have qualified as a REIT since the consummation of the IPO and that it is in the best interests of our shareholders that we operate as a REIT. We made the election to be taxed as a REIT beginning with our 2017 tax year. As a REIT, we are required to distribute at least 90% of our taxable income to our shareholders on an annual basis. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain REIT status.
Our qualification as a REIT depends on our ability to meet on a continuing basis, through actual investment and operating results, various complex requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), relating to, among other things, the sources of our gross income, the composition and values of our assets, our compliance with the distribution requirements applicable to REITs and the diversity of ownership of our outstanding common shares. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain our qualification as a REIT.
So long as we qualify as a REIT, we, generally, will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income that we distribute currently to our shareholders. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year and do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate income tax rates and may be precluded from electing to be treated as a REIT for four taxable years following the year during which we lose our REIT qualification. Even though we qualify as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income.
 
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Emerging Growth Company Status
We are an “emerging growth company”, as defined in the JOBS Act, and, for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may choose to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements not applicable to other public companies but applicable to emerging growth companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to have our independent registered public accounting firm audit our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As an emerging growth company, we can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until those standards apply to private companies. We intend to avail ourselves of these options. Once adopted, we must continue to report on that basis until we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company.
We will cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest of: (i) the end of the 2022 fiscal year; (ii) the first fiscal year after our annual gross revenue are $1.07 billion or more; (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; or (iv) the end of any fiscal year in which the market value of our common shares held by non-affiliates exceeded $700 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year. We cannot predict if investors will find our common shares less attractive if we choose to rely on these exemptions. If, as a result of our decision to reduce future disclosure, investors find our common shares less attractive, there may be a less active trading market for our common shares and the price of our common shares may be more volatile.
As an “emerging growth company,” we intend to avail ourselves of the reduced disclosure requirements and extended transition periods for adopting new or revised accounting standards that would otherwise apply to us as a public reporting company. Once adopted, we must continue to report on that basis until we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to those of other public reporting companies that either are not emerging growth companies or that are emerging growth companies but have opted not to avail themselves of the reduced disclosure requirements for emerging growth companies and investors may deem our securities a less attractive investment relative to those other companies, which could adversely affect our stock price.
Distribution Policy
U.S. federal income tax law generally requires that a REIT distribute annually at least 90% of its taxable income. To the extent that it annually distributes less than 100% of its taxable income, the undistributed amount is taxed at regular corporate rates.
We intend to pay regular quarterly dividends in an amount necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT. Any distributions we make to our shareholders, the amount of such dividend and whether such dividend is payable in cash, our common shares or other property, or a combination thereof, is at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our actual results of operations and liquidity. These results and our ability to pay distributions will be affected by various factors, including the net interest and other income from our portfolio, our operating expenses and other expenditures and the restrictions and limitations imposed by the New York Business Corporation Law, referred to as the BCL, and any restrictions and/or limitations imposed on us by our creditors.
To comply with certain REIT qualification requirements, we will, before the end of any REIT taxable year in which we have accumulated earnings and profits attributable to a non-REIT year, declare a dividend to our shareholders to distribute such accumulated earnings and profits, referred to as a Purging Distribution. As of January 1, 2017, we had no accumulated earnings and profits.
For information regarding dividends paid See “Dividend and Distribution Policy” at page 20 below.
Restrictions Relating to our Common Shares
Our certificate of incorporation, as amended, includes several provisions that are designed to ensure that we satisfy various Code-imposed requirements applicable to REITs including the following:
 
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Shareholders are prohibited from beneficially or constructively owning, applying certain attribution rules under the Code, more than 4.99% by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital shares. This restriction does not apply to Jeffrey C. Villano, one of our founders and our former co-Chief Executive Officer, and John L. Villano, our other founder and our current Chief Executive Officer. As of September 30, 2021, Jeffrey Villano and John Villano beneficially own approximately 5.2% and 4.7%, respectively, of our outstanding common shares. In addition, our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, waive the ownership limit with respect to a shareholder if it is presented with evidence satisfactory to it that such ownership will not then or in the future jeopardize our qualification as a REIT.

Shareholders are not allowed to transfer their shares of our capital stock if, as a result of such transfer, we would have fewer than 100 shareholders.

Any ownership or purported transfer of our capital shares in violation of the foregoing restrictions will result in the shares so owned or transferred being automatically transferred to a charitable trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary, and the purported owner or transferee acquiring no rights in those shares. If a transfer to a charitable trust would be ineffective for any reason to prevent a violation of the restriction, the transfer resulting in the violation will be void from the time of the purported transfer.
The foregoing limitations and restrictions could delay or prevent a transaction or a change in control of us that might involve a premium price for our capital shares or otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders.
Our board of directors has granted three exemptions to the ownership limitation. One waiver was granted to an investment fund allowing it to purchase up to 9.9% of our outstanding common shares. However, under the constructive ownership rules applicable to REITs, for tax purposes, those shares are deemed to be owned by the investors in the fund rather than a single shareholder. A second waiver was granted to an investment advisor and asset manager allowing it to purchase up to 9.9% of our outstanding common shares for the accounts of its clients. The third waiver was given to Brian Prinz, one of our independent directors who, following the completion of our initial public offering (the “IPO”), was the constructive owner of more than 4.99% of our outstanding common shares. However, as a result of the follow-on offering in October-November 2017, Mr. Prinz’s constructive ownership of our outstanding shares has been reduced and no longer exceeds the 4.99% limitation. We are not aware of any shareholder, other than Jeffrey C. Villano owning more than 4.99% of our outstanding common shares for tax purposes or otherwise. Accordingly, we do not believe that there are five or fewer shareholders who currently own more than 50% of our outstanding shares and we have no intention of granting any further waivers to the ownership limitation. However, if one or more shareholders were to acquire a significant number of our shares without our knowledge, we may fail the diversified ownership requirement and, as a result, fail to qualify as a REIT. The ownership limitation provided for by our charter provides a mechanism by which we may be able to force a shareholder to reduce his, her or its interest if we know about it but it may not prevent them from acquiring shares in excess of the limit initially.
Summary Risk Factors
An investment in our securities involves various risks that you should consider carefully before investing in us. Many of these risks are discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and as supplemented by other risk factors discussed in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed in 2021. If any of these risks occur, our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, prospects and ability to make distributions to our shareholders could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you may lose a portion or your entire investment. These risks include:

The outbreak and spread of the novel coronavirus disease, known as COVID-19 may have a material adverse effect on our business operations and financial condition.

Difficult conditions in the mortgage and real estate markets, the financial markets and the economy generally have caused and may cause us to experience losses in the future.

An increase in interest rates could adversely affect our ability to generate income and pay dividends.
 
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Prepayment rates can change, adversely affecting the performance of our assets.

Short-term loans may involve a greater risk of loss than traditional mortgage loans.

Many of our loans are not funded with interest reserves and our borrowers may be unable to pay the interest accruing on the loans when due, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition.

Many of the properties securing our mortgage loans are not income producing, thus increasing the risks of delinquency and foreclosure.

Our due diligence may not reveal all the risks associated with a mortgage loan or the property that will be mortgaged to secure the loan, which could lead to losses.

Residential mortgage loans are subject to increased risks.

Our real estate assets are subject to risks particular to real property.

We may be adversely affected by the economies and other conditions of the markets in which we operate, particularly in Connecticut, where we have a high concentration of our loans.

The illiquidity of our loan portfolio could significantly impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in economic, financial, investment and other conditions.

Declining real estate valuations could result in impairment charges, the determination of which involves a significant amount of judgment on our part. Any impairment charge could have a material adverse effect on us.

Competition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may adopt new or change our existing investment, financing, or hedging strategies and asset allocation and operational and management policies without shareholder consent, which may result in the purchase of riskier assets, the use of greater leverage or commercially unsound actions, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

In connection with our lending operations, we rely on third-party service providers to perform a variety of services, comply with applicable laws and regulations, and carry out contractual covenants and terms, the failure of which by any of these third-party service providers may adversely impact our business and financial results.

We may be adversely affected by deficiencies in foreclosure practices as well as related delays in the foreclosure process.

We may be unable to identify and complete acquisitions on favorable terms or at all, which may inhibit our growth and have a material adverse effect on us.

The downgrade of the credit ratings of the U.S., any future downgrades of the credit ratings of the U.S. and the failure to resolve issues related to U.S. fiscal and debt policies may materially adversely affect our business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.

Interruptions in our ability to provide our products and our service to our customers could damage our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

The occurrence of cyber-incidents, or a deficiency in our cybersecurity or in those of any of our third party service providers, could negatively impact our business by causing a disruption to our operations, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information or damage to our business relationships or reputation, all of which could negatively impact our business and results of operations

The loss of key personnel, including our executive officers, could have a material adverse effect on us.

Our inability to recruit or retain qualified personnel or to maintain access to key third-party service providers and software developers, could have a material adverse effect on us.
 
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The stock ownership limit imposed by our charter may inhibit market activity in our common shares and may restrict our business combination opportunities.

If we sell or transfer mortgage loans to a third party, including a securitization entity, we may be required to repurchase such loans or indemnify such third party if we breach representations and warranties.

An inability to access external sources of capital on favorable terms or at all could limit our ability to execute our business and growth strategies.

If we are unable to leverage our assets to the extent we currently anticipate, the returns on certain of our assets could be diminished, which may limit or eliminate our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

Our outstanding indebtedness as of September 30, 2021 was approximately $144.6 million, which exposes us to the risk of default thereunder, among other risks.

Despite our current debt levels, we may still incur substantially more debt or take other actions which could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on our indebtedness when due and distributions to our shareholders.

Our outstanding fixed rate term notes are unsecured and therefore are effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness we have incurred or may incur in the future.

The Notes are subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries.

The indenture under which the Notes are issued contains limited protection for holders of the Notes.

An increase in market interest rates could result in a decrease in the value of the Notes.

Although the Notes are listed on the NYSE American, an active trading market for the Notes may not develop, which could limit the ability of Noteholders to sell the Notes and/or the market price of the Notes.

We may choose to redeem the Notes when prevailing interest rates are relatively low.

If we default on our obligations to pay our other indebtedness, we may not be able to make payments on the Notes.

We are not obligated to contribute to a sinking fund to retire the Notes and the Notes are not guaranteed by a third-party.

A downgrade, suspension or withdrawal of the credit rating assigned by a rating agency to us or the Notes, if any, could cause the liquidity or market value of the Notes to decline significantly.

Maintenance of our Investment Company Act exemption imposes limits on our operations.

Failure to qualify as a REIT would adversely affect our operations and ability to make distributions.

Qualifying as a REIT involves highly technical and complex provisions of the Code and therefore, in certain circumstances, may be subject to uncertainty.

Even though we qualify as a REIT, we, nevertheless, may be subject to taxes, which will reduce our cash flow.

The REIT distribution requirements could adversely affect our ability to grow our business and may force us to seek third-party capital during unfavorable market conditions.

Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends, which could depress the market price of our common shares if it is perceived as a less attractive investment.

We may in the future choose to pay dividends in the form of common shares, in which case shareholders may be required to pay income taxes in excess of the cash dividends they receive.

Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to liquidate or forgo otherwise attractive investment opportunities.
 
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We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could reduce the market price of our common shares.

The market price and trading volume of our securities may be volatile.

We have not established a minimum dividend payment level for our common shareholders and there are no assurances of our ability to pay dividends to our common shareholders in the future.

Future offerings of preferred shares or debt securities would rank senior to our common shares upon liquidation and for dividend purposes, would dilute the interests of our common shareholders and may adversely affect the market price of our common shares.

An increase in interest rates may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

Your investment in and resulting interest in us may be diluted or lose value if we issue additional shares.

We may not have sufficient authorized shares to raise additional capital or complete an acquisition or other strategic transaction.

If we default on our obligations under the Churchill Facility and the Wells Fargo Margin Loan Account we may suffer adverse consequences and may not be able to make payments on the Existing Notes.
Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are currently located at 698 Main Street, Branford, Connecticut 06405 and our telephone number is (203) 433-4736. The URL for our website is www.sachemcapitalcorp.com. The information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into, and you must not consider the information to be a part of, this base prospectus.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and under the heading “Risk Factors” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as such risk factors may be updated in our subsequent filings with the SEC (including our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q) and the other information contained in this document, in an applicable prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing any of our securities. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” in this base prospectus. These risks are not the only ones faced by us. Additional risks not presently known or that are currently deemed immaterial could also materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects. In connection with the forward-looking statements that appear in this prospectus, you should carefully review the factors referred to above and the cautionary statements referred to in “Forward-Looking Statements May Prove Inaccurate” below. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described above and in the documents incorporated herein by reference.
We may not have sufficient authorized shares to raise additional capital or complete an acquisition or other strategic transaction.
Our certificate of incorporation, as amended, authorizes the issuance of 100,000,000 common shares and 5,000,000 preferred shares. As of February 15, 2022, 35,361,390 common shares were issued and outstanding, and 1,955,000 preferred shares have been designated as Series A Preferred Stock, of which 1,903,000 were issued and outstanding. In addition, as of February 15, 2022, 55,550,481 common shares are held in reserve for future issuance including 6,607,327 shares reserved for issuance in the New ATM Offering, 1,318,935 shares reserved for issuance under our 2016 Equity Compensation Plan, 49,219 shares for issuance upon the exercise of warrants issued to the Underwriters in our follow-on public offering and 47,575,000 shares reserved for issuance in the event of the conversion of the outstanding shares of our Series A Preferred Stock. Thus, we have only 9,088,129 common shares and 3,045,000 preferred shares available for future issuance. An amendment to our certificate of incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of capital stock requires approval of our shareholders. Our shareholders did not approve the proposal to increase the number of common shares and preferred shares which was presented at our 2021 annual meeting of shareholders and there can be no assurance that we will be able to increase the number of authorized shares in the future. As a result, if we need to raise additional working capital through additional equity financings or to complete an acquisition or other strategic transaction through the issuance of our shares in the future, the number of shares available for future issuance may not be sufficient and may limit our ability to raise additional working capital, when needed, or complete an acquisition or other strategic transaction in the future.
If we default on our obligations under the Churchill Facility and the Wells Fargo Margin Loan Account we may suffer adverse consequences and may not be able to make payments on the Existing Notes.
To secure our obligations under the Churchill Facility, Churchill has a first priority security interest on the mortgage loans pledged as collateral under the Churchill Facility. If we default on our obligations under the Churchill Facility and fail to cure, Churchill will have the right to assign, sell, or otherwise transfer, the mortgage loans subject to their security interests. If Churchill exercises its right to sell the mortgage loans pledged under the Churchill Facility, such sales may be completed at distressed sale prices, thereby diminishing or potentially eliminating the amount of cash available to us after repayment of the amounts outstanding under the Churchill Facility. In addition, the loans under our margin loan account with Wells Fargo are collateralized by our portfolio of short-term securities held at Wells Fargo. A decline in the value of such securities below the margin call limit may require us to provide additional funds or securities to Wells Fargo to avoid a forced sale of such securities. The occurrence of either or both of the foregoing events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, cash flows, our ability to make distributions to shareholders and make the interest payment on the Existing Notes.
      Any default under the agreements governing our existing indebtedness, including a default under the Churchill Facility or the Wells Fargo Margin Loan Account or other indebtedness to which we may be a party
 
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that is not waived by the required lenders, and the remedies sought by the holders of such indebtedness could make us unable to pay principal and interest on the Existing Notes and substantially decrease the market value of the Existing Notes. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow and are otherwise unable to obtain funds necessary to meet required payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness, or if we otherwise fail to comply with the various covenants, including financial and operating covenants, in the instruments governing our indebtedness, we could be in default under the terms of the agreements governing such indebtedness, including the Existing Notes. In the event of such default, the holders of such indebtedness could elect to declare all the funds borrowed thereunder to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest. In addition, the lenders under any revolving credit facility or other financing that we may obtain in the future could elect to terminate their commitment, cease making further loans and institute foreclosure proceedings against our assets, and force us into bankruptcy or liquidation. Any such default may constitute a default under all of our indebtedness, including the Existing Notes, which could further limit our ability to repay our indebtedness, including the Existing Notes. If our operating performance declines, we may in the future need to seek to obtain waivers from our existing lenders at the time to avoid being in default. If we breach any loan covenants, we may not be able to obtain such a waiver from the lenders in which case we would be in default under the credit arrangement and the lender could exercise its rights as described above, and we may be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. If we are unable to repay indebtedness, lenders having secured obligations could proceed against the collateral securing the debt. Because the Churchill Facility and the Wells Fargo Margin Loan Account have, and any future credit facilities will likely have, customary cross-default provisions, if repayment of any outstanding indebtedness, such as the Existing Notes, the Churchill Facility, the Wells Fargo Margin Loan Account or any future credit facility, is accelerated, we may be unable to repay or finance the amounts due.
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and certain documents incorporated by reference herein include certain statements that may be deemed to be “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and are intended to be covered by the safe harbor provisions thereof. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this prospectus and certain documents incorporated by reference herein that address activities, events or developments that we expect, believe or anticipate will or may occur in the future, including such matters as future capital expenditures, dividends and acquisitions (including the amount and nature thereof), development trends of the real estate industry and the New York metropolitan area markets, business strategies, expansion and growth of our operations and other similar matters, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions and analyses made by us considering our experience and our perception of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors we believe are appropriate.
Forward-looking statements are not guaranties of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially, and we caution you not to place undue reliance on such statements. Forward-looking statements are generally identifiable by the use of the words “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “intend,” “project,” “continue,” or the negative of these words, or other similar words or terms. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and certain documents incorporated by reference herein are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by forward-looking statements made by us. These risks and uncertainties include those described in detail in our annual, quarterly and current periodic reports filed pursuant to the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and that are incorporated herein by reference, as well as any additional risk factors included in any prospectus supplement used in connection with the offering and sale of any Securities, as well as others that may not be included in these reports and prospectus supplements. In addition, many of the risk factors that could adversely impact our business, operations and financial results are beyond our control. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of future events, new information or otherwise. In light of these risks and uncertainties, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this prospectus and the incorporated documents might not occur and actual results, performance or achievement could differ materially from that anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the Securities offered hereby for general corporate purposes and working capital, which may include repaying existing indebtedness, investing in real estate opportunities other than as a mortgage lender and acquisitions of existing mortgage loan portfolios or real estate finance companies as suitable opportunities arise. Further details relating to the use of the net proceeds from any particular offering of Securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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MARKET PRICE OF COMMON SHARES
AND RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS
Market Information
On February 10, 2017, our common shares listed on the NYSE American and began trading under the symbol “SACH”. Prior to its listing on the NYSE American, our common shares were not publicly traded.
On February 17, 2022, the last reported sale price of our common shares on NYSE American was $4.96 per share.
Holders
As of February 15, 2022, we had 53 shareholders of record. The number of holders does not include individuals or entities who beneficially own shares but whose shares, which are held of record by a broker or clearing agency but does include each such broker or clearing agency as one record holder.
 
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DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTION POLICY
U.S. federal income tax law generally requires that a REIT distribute annually at least 90% of its taxable income. To the extent that it annually distributes less than 100% of its taxable income, the undistributed amount is taxed at regular corporate rates.
We intend to pay regular quarterly dividends in an amount necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT. Any distributions we make to our shareholders, the amount of such dividend and whether such dividend is payable in cash, our common shares or other property, or a combination thereof, is at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our actual results of operations and liquidity. These results and our ability to pay distributions will be affected by various factors, including the net interest and other income from our portfolio, our operating expenses and other expenditures and the restrictions and limitations imposed by the New York Business Corporation Law, referred to as the BCL, and any restrictions and/or limitations imposed on us by our creditors.
To comply with certain REIT qualification requirements, we will, before the end of any REIT taxable year in which we have accumulated earnings and profits attributable to a non-REIT year, declare a dividend to our shareholders to distribute such accumulated earnings and profits, referred to as a Purging Distribution. As of January 1, 2017, we had no accumulated earnings and profits.
The table below sets forth dividends paid to the holders of our common shares since we began operating as a REIT.
Payment Date
Amount
Per Share
2022
January 10Ω $ 0.12
2021
October 29
$ 0.12
July 30
$ 0.12
April 16
$ 0.12
January 8¥ $ 0.12
2020
November 4
$ 0.12
August 7
$ 0.12
January 27*
$ 0.12
2019
October 22
$ 0.12
July 29
$ 0.12
April 18
$ 0.12
January 10**
$ 0.17
2018
November 6
$ 0.12
July 27
$ 0.11
April 27***
$ 0.105
February 27****
$ 0.105
2017
November 17
$ 0.105
July 27
$ 0.105
April 27
$ 0.05
Ω
A portion represents a distribution of 2021 income.
¥
A portion represents a distribution of 2020 income.
 
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*
A portion represents a distribution of 2019 income.
**
Represents a distribution of 2018 income.
***
A portion represents a distribution of 2017 income.
****
Represents a distribution of 2017 income.
Our ability to pay dividends, the amount of the dividend and the frequency at which we will pay dividends is subject to numerous factors, including the following:

how quickly we can deploy the net proceeds from the sale of Securities to make new loans;

our ability to increase the interest rate on our loans to keep pace with the frequency and size of rate increases under our existing and future credit facilities;

our ability to manage and control our operating and administrative expenses, particularly those relating to our status as a public reporting REIT;

defaults by our borrowers;

the rate of prepayments on our outstanding loans and our ability to reinvest those payments in new loans;

regional and national economic conditions;

competition from banks and other financing sources;

our cash flow from operations;

unanticipated developments, write-offs or liabilities;

restrictions and limitations imposed by the BCL; and

restrictions in our existing and future credit facilities.
See, generally, “Risk Factors” incorporated herein by reference.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON SHARES
The following description of our common shares is only a summary. This description and the description contained in any prospectus supplement is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, each as amended, each of which has previously been filed with the SEC and which we incorporate by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and the BCL.
Authorized Capitalization
Our authorized capital stock includes 100,000,000 common shares, par value $0.001 per share. At February 15, 2022, we had 35,361,390 common shares issued and outstanding, and 55,550,481 common shares held in reserve for future issuance including 6,607,327 shares reserved for issuance in the New ATM Offering, 1,318,935 shares reserved for issuance under our 2016 Equity Compensation Plan, 49,219 shares for issuance upon the exercise of warrants issued to the Underwriters in our follow-on public offering and 47,575,000 shares reserved for issuance in the event of the conversion of the outstanding shares of our Series A Preferred Stock.
Common Shares
Subject to preferences that may apply to preferred shares outstanding at the time, the holders of outstanding common shares are entitled to receive dividends out of assets legally available therefor at such times and in such amounts as the board of directors may from time to time determine. Each shareholder is entitled to one vote for each common share held on all matters submitted to a vote of shareholders. Directors are elected by plurality vote. Therefore, the holders of a majority of the outstanding common shares voted can elect all the directors then standing for election. Holders of common shares are not entitled to preemptive rights and are not subject to conversion or, as more fully described below in “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Capital Stock,” except in the case of a prohibited transfer, redemption. If we liquidate or dissolve or our business is otherwise wound up, the holders of common shares would be entitled to share ratably in the distribution of all of our assets remaining available for distribution after satisfaction of all our liabilities and the payment of the liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred shares. Each outstanding common share is, and all common shares outstanding upon completion of an offering of common shares will be, fully paid and nonassessable.
Authorized but Unissued Shares of Capital Stock
New York law does not require shareholder approval for any issuance of authorized shares. However, the listing requirements of NYSE American, which would apply for so long as our common shares are listed on the NYSE American, require shareholder approval of certain issuances (other than a public offering) equal to or exceeding 20% of the then outstanding voting power or then outstanding common shares, as well as for certain issuances of shares of capital stock in compensatory transactions. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings, to raise additional capital or to facilitate acquisitions. One of the effects of the existence of unissued and unreserved common shares may be to enable our board of directors to sell common shares to persons friendly to current management, for such consideration, in form and amount, as is acceptable to the board, which issuance could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby protect the continuity of our management and possibly deprive shareholders of opportunities to sell their common shares at prices higher than prevailing market prices.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common shares is Computershare Trust Company, N. A. located at 150 Royal1 Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021.
Listing
Our common shares are currently listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “SACH.”
 
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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED SHARES
The following description of the terms of our preferred shares is only a summary. This description and the description contained in any prospectus supplement is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, each as amended, each of which has previously been filed with the SEC and which we incorporate by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and the BCL. In addition, the specific terms of any series of preferred shares will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Authorized and Issued Preferred Shares
Our authorized capital stock includes 5,000,000 preferred shares, $0.001 par value per share, of which 1,955,000 preferred shares have been designated as 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (“Series A Preferred Stock”). Terms of the Series A Preferred Stock are set forth in a certificate of amendment adopted by our board of directors and filed in accordance with the BCL. Currently, 1,903,000 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock are issued and outstanding.
Currently, 3,045,000 authorized but unissued preferred shares are available for issuance. Our board of directors may, without the approval of holders of the Series A Preferred Stock or our common shares, classify additional classes or series of authorized and unissued preferred shares ranking junior to or on parity with the Series A Preferred Stock or designate additional shares of the Series A Preferred Stock and authorize the issuance of such shares. Our board of directors may, with the affirmative vote or consent of the holders of at least two-thirds of the shares of the Series A Preferred Stock outstanding at the time (voting together as a single class with other classes or series of our preferred shares we may issue ranking on a parity with the Series A Preferred Stock and upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable), classify and designate equity securities ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock.
Transfer Agent and Registrar for our Series A Preferred Stock
The transfer agent and registrar for the Series A Preferred Stock is Computershare Trust Company, N. A. located at 150 Royal1 Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021.
Listing of the Series A Preferred Stock
The Series A Preferred Stock is currently listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “SACHPRA.”
General
The following description of the preferred shares sets forth general terms and provisions of the preferred shares to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The statements below describing the preferred shares are in all respects subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, each as amended, designating the terms of a series of preferred shares.
The issuance of preferred shares could adversely affect the voting power, dividend rights and other rights of holders of common shares. Our board of directors could establish another series of preferred shares that could, depending on the terms of the series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for the common shares or otherwise be in the best interest of the holders thereof. Management believes that the availability of preferred shares will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise.
Terms
Subject to the limitations prescribed by our certificate of incorporation, as amended, our board of directors is authorized to fix the number of preferred shares constituting each series and the designations and powers, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights and qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including provisions as may be desired concerning voting, redemption, dividends, dissolution or the distribution of assets, conversion or exchange, and other subjects or matters as
 
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may be fixed by resolution of the board of directors. The preferred shares, when issued in exchange for the consideration therefor, will be fully paid and nonassessable by us and will have no preemptive rights.
Reference is made to the prospectus supplement relating to the series of preferred shares offered thereby for the specific terms thereof, including:

The title and stated value of the preferred shares;

The number of preferred shares in the class, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price;

The dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment day(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to the preferred shares;

The date from which dividends on the preferred shares shall accumulate, if applicable;

The procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for the preferred shares;

The provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred shares;

The provision for redemption, if applicable, of the preferred shares;

Any listing of the preferred shares on any securities exchange;

The terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred shares may or will be convertible into common shares, including the conversion price or manner of calculation thereof;

The relative ranking and preferences of the preferred shares as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

Any limitations on direct or beneficial ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve the status of our company as a REIT;

A discussion of federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred shares; and

Any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the preferred shares.
Rank
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred shares will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, rank:

senior to all classes or series of common shares and to all equity securities issued by us the terms of which provide that the equity securities shall rank junior to the preferred shares;

junior to all equity securities issued by us which the terms of the preferred shares provide will rank senior to it. The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities; and

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us other than those referred above.
Dividends
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred shares will have the rights with respect to payment of dividends set forth below.
Holders of the preferred shares of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, out of our assets legally available for payment, cash dividends in the amounts and on the dates as will be set forth in, or pursuant to, the applicable prospectus supplement. Each dividend shall be payable to holders of record as they appear on our share transfer books on the record dates as shall be fixed by our board of directors.
Dividends on any series of preferred shares may be cumulative or non-cumulative, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Dividends, if cumulative, will be cumulative from and after the date set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the board of directors fails to declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of preferred shares for which dividends are non-cumulative, then the holders of such series of preferred shares will have no right to receive a dividend in respect of the related
 
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dividend period and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for the period, whether or not dividends on such series of preferred shares are declared payable on any future dividend payment date.
Redemption
If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred shares will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in the prospectus supplement.
Liquidation Preference
Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, then, before any distribution or payment shall be made to the holders of any common shares or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred shares of such series in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, the holders of the preferred shares shall be entitled to receive out of the assets of our company legally available for distribution to shareholders liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share that is set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, plus an amount equal to all dividends accumulated and unpaid thereon, which shall not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods if the preferred shares do not have a cumulative dividend. After payment of the full amount of the liquidating distributions to which they are entitled, the holders of preferred shares will have no rights or claim to any of our remaining assets. In the event that, upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding preferred shares of such series and the corresponding amounts payable on all shares of other classes or series of capital stock of our company ranking on a parity with the preferred shares in the distribution of assets, then the holders of the preferred shares and all such other classes or series of capital stock shall share ratably in any distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be respectively entitled.
In determining whether a distribution (other than upon our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up) by dividend, redemption or other acquisition of shares of our stock or otherwise is permitted under the BCL, no effect shall be given to amounts that would be needed, if we were to be dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of holders of any series of preferred shares whose preferential rights upon dissolution are superior to those receiving the distribution.
Voting Rights
Holders of preferred shares will not have any voting rights, except as set forth below or as otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Conversion Rights
The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of preferred shares is convertible into common shares will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include the number of common shares into which the preferred shares are convertible, the conversion price, or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of the preferred shares or us, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of the preferred shares.
Restrictions on Ownership
As discussed below under “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer of Capital Stock,” for us to qualify as a REIT under the Code, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding capital stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals at any time during the last half of a taxable year. An individual for these purposes is defined by the federal income tax laws pertaining to REITs. The application of the Code restrictions on stock ownership is very complex. Therefore, the certificate of designation for each series of preferred shares may contain provisions restricting the ownership and transfer of such series of preferred shares. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any additional ownership limitation relating to a series of preferred shares.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
The following description of warrants is only a summary. This description is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the provisions of the applicable warrant agreement.
Warrants Outstanding
In connection with a public offering of common shares in October-November 2017, we issued to the underwriters warrants to purchase an aggregate of 187,500 common shares at an exercise price of $5.00 per share. These warrants are exercisable at any time, and from time to time, in whole or in part, commencing on October 24, 2018 and expire on October 24, 2022. As of February 15, 2022, 49,219 of these warrants were outstanding.
General
The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.
We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, which may include a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering before the issuance of the related series of warrants. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we sell under this prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms relating to warrants being offered including:

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

in the case of warrants to purchase common shares or preferred shares, the number of shares of common shares or preferred shares, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants, if material;
 
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the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.
Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including, in the case of warrants to purchase common shares or preferred shares, the right to receive dividends, if any, or payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs or to exercise voting rights, if any.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
Holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We intend to set forth in any warrant agreement and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent.
Upon receipt of the required payment and any warrant certificate or other form required for exercise properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all the warrants represented by the warrant or warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant or warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The following description of the terms of debt securities that we may issue and the related indenture, if any, is only a summary. This description and the description contained in any prospectus supplement are subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to the applicable indentures, which will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
We may offer secured or unsecured debt securities in one or more series which may be senior, subordinated or junior subordinated, and which may be convertible or exchangeable into another security. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will be issued in one or more series under the Indenture, dated June 21, 2019, between us and U.S. Bank, N.A. (the “Indenture”), and the specific terms applicable to such debt securities will be set forth in a supplement to such Indenture and in the applicable debt securities in accordance with the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “TIA”).
The following description of selected provisions of the Indenture and the debt securities that may be issued thereunder is not complete, and the description of the selected terms of a specific series of debt securities included in the applicable prospectus supplement also will not be complete. You should review the form of the Indenture, any supplemental indentures and the form of the applicable debt security, which forms have been or will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or as exhibits to documents which have been or will be incorporated by reference in this base prospectus. To obtain a copy of the form of the Indenture or the form of the applicable debt securities, see “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus. The following description of debt securities and the description of the debt securities of the particular series in the applicable prospectus supplement are qualified in their entirety by reference to all of the provisions of the Indenture, any supplemental indentures and the applicable debt securities, which provisions, including defined terms, are incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Capitalized terms used but not defined in this section shall have the meanings assigned to those terms in the Indenture.
General
The aggregate principal amount of debt securities that we may issue under the Indenture is unlimited. The prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that we may offer will contain the specific terms of the debt securities. These terms may include the following:

the issuer or co-obligors of such debt securities;

the guarantors of each series, if any, and the terms of the guarantees (including provisions relating to seniority, subordination and release of the guarantees), if any;

the title and aggregate principal amount of the debt securities and any limit on the aggregate principal amount;

whether the debt securities will be senior, subordinated or junior subordinated;

whether the debt securities will be secured or unsecured;

any applicable subordination provisions;

the maturity date(s) or method for determining same;

whether the debt security is rated, by whom it was rated and the rating;

the interest rate(s) or the method for determining same;

the dates on which interest will accrue or the method for determining dates on which interest will accrue and dates on which interest will be payable and whether interest shall be payable in cash or additional securities;

whether the debt securities are convertible or exchangeable into other securities and any related terms and conditions;

redemption or early repayment provisions;
 
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authorized denominations;

form;

if other than the principal amount, the principal amount of debt securities payable upon acceleration;

place(s) where payment of principal and interest may be made, where debt securities may be presented and where notices or demands upon us may be made;

whether such debt securities will be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities and the date as of which the securities are dated if other than the date of original issuance;

amount of discount or premium, if any, with which such debt securities will be issued;

any covenants applicable to the debt securities being issued;

any defaults and events of default applicable to the debt securities being issued;

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the purchase price for, the principal of and any premium and any interest on, such debt securities will be payable;

the time period within which, the manner in which and the terms and conditions upon which the holders of the debt securities or the issuer or co-obligors, as the case may be, can select the payment currency;

our obligation or right to redeem, purchase or repay debt securities under a sinking fund, amortization or analogous provision;

any restriction or conditions on the transferability of the debt securities;

the securities exchange(s) on which the debt securities will be listed, if any;

whether any underwriter(s) will act as a market maker(s) for the debt securities;

the extent to which a secondary market for the debt securities is expected to develop;

provisions granting special rights to holders of the debt securities upon occurrence of specified events;

compensation payable to and/or reimbursement of expenses of the trustee of the series of debt securities;

provisions for the defeasance of the debt securities or related to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture:

provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture and the execution of supplemental indentures for such series; and

any other terms of the debt securities (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of the TIA, but may modify, amend, supplement or delete any of the terms of the indenture with respect to such series debt securities).
We may sell the debt securities, including original issue discount securities, at par or at a substantial discount below their stated principal amount. Unless we inform you otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we may issue additional debt securities of a particular series without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series or any other series outstanding at the time of issuance. Any such additional debt securities, together with all other outstanding debt securities of that series, will constitute a single series of securities under the applicable indenture.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any other special considerations for any debt securities we sell which are denominated in a currency or currency unit other than U.S. dollars. In addition, debt securities may be issued where the amount of principal and/or interest payable is determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity indices or other factors. Holders of such securities may receive a principal amount or a payment of interest that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending upon the value of the applicable
 
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currencies, commodities, equity indices or other factors. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest, if any, payable on any date, the currencies, commodities, equity indices or other factors to which the amount payable on such date is linked.
United States federal income tax consequences and special considerations, if any, applicable to any such series will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we inform you otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not be listed on any securities exchange.
Debt securities to be issued in fully registered form without coupons and in various denominations. Subject to the limitations provided in the Indenture, applicable indenture supplement and/or in the prospectus supplement, debt securities that are issued in registered form may be transferred or exchanged at the designated corporate trust office of the trustee, without the payment of any service charge, other than any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.
Global Securities
Unless we inform you otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depositary identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Global securities will be issued in registered form and in either temporary or definitive form. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for the individual debt securities, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary for such global security to a nominee of such depositary or by a nominee of such depositary to such depositary or another nominee of such depositary or by such depositary or any such nominee to a successor of such depositary or a nominee of such successor. The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any debt securities of a series and the rights of and limitations upon owners of beneficial interests in a global security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Governing Law
The Indentures and the corresponding debt securities shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF GUARANTEES OF DEBT SECURITIES
We, or a subsidiary of ours, may guarantee (either fully and unconditionally or in a limited manner) the due and punctual payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on one or more series of debt securities issued by us or a subsidiary of ours, as the case may be, whether at maturity, by acceleration, redemption or repayment or otherwise, in accordance with the terms of the applicable guarantee and the applicable indenture.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units consisting of a combination of two or more of any offered Securities, at a single price or at a separate price for each security included in the unit. The Securities offered may be issued separately or may be evidenced by a separate unit certificate, which may or may not trade separately. The terms and conditions governing the issuance of any units, including the form and content of any certificate evidencing the units, will be described in detail in the prospectus supplement to be filed in connection with the offering of such units.
 
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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF NEW YORK LAW AND
OF OUR CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS
The following summary of certain provisions of New York law, our certificate of incorporation, as amended, and our bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the New York Business Corporation Law and to our certificate of incorporation, as amended, and bylaws. Copies of our certificate of incorporation, as amended, and bylaws are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Our Board of Directors
We have one class of directors. Each director serves for a one-year term or until his or her successor is elected and qualified. Our bylaws provide that our board of directors will consist of not less than one and not more than five directors. Our board of directors currently consists of four members.
Election of Directors; Removals; Vacancies; Meetings
Directors are elected by a plurality of all the votes cast in the election of directors. Under our bylaws a director may be removed for cause by the board of directors or by shareholders acting by a simple majority. Our bylaws provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled by the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum. However, only shareholders can fill a vacancy on our board of directors that is caused by the removal of a director by action of shareholders. Any director elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the director he or she is replacing or until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Our bylaws provide as follows:

The annual meeting of the board of directors for the election of officers and the transaction of such other business as may come before the meeting, shall be held, without notice, immediately following the annual meeting of shareholders.

Regular meetings of the board of directors shall be held at such time and place as may be fixed by resolution of the Board, and when so fixed, no further notice thereof need be given. Regular meetings not fixed by resolution of the board of directors may be held on notice at such time and place as shall be determined by the board of directors.

Special meetings of the board of directors may be called on notice at any time by the Chairman, if one shall have been appointed, or the President, and shall be called by the Chairman, if one shall have been appointed, or by the President at the written request of a majority of the directors then in office.
Meetings of Shareholders
Our bylaws provide that a meeting of our shareholders for the election of directors and the transaction of any business will be held annually on such day during the period from May 1 through October 31, other than a legal holiday and at the time and place set by the board of directors. Our bylaws provide that a special meeting of shareholders may be called at any time by the president and must be called by the president at the request in writing of a majority of the directors then in office or at the request in writing filed with our secretary by the holders of a majority of our issued and outstanding shares of capital shares entitled to vote at such a meeting.
Shareholder Actions by Written Consent
Under Section 615 of the BCL and our certificate of incorporation, as amended, shareholder action may be taken without a meeting if a written consent, setting forth the action so taken, is given by the shareholders entitled to cast not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting of shareholders.
Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Under the BCL, a New York corporation may amend its certificate of incorporation if such action is declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of shareholders entitled
 
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to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our bylaws provide that each of our board of directors and our shareholders has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws.
Transactions Outside the Ordinary Course of Business
Under the BCL, a New York corporation generally may not dissolve, merge or consolidate with another entity, sell all or substantially all its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless the action is declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of shareholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, unless a greater percentage is specified in the corporation’s certificate of incorporation. Our certificate of incorporation, as amended, does not provide for a super majority vote on any matter.
Business Combinations
Under the BCL, certain “business combinations” ​(including a merger, consolidation, statutory share exchange and, in certain circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a New York corporation and an “interested shareholder” ​(defined generally as any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 20% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting shares or an affiliate of such an interested shareholder) are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested shareholder becomes an interested shareholder. Thereafter, any such business combination must generally be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of holders of a majority of the outstanding voting shares of the corporation other than shares held by the interested shareholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested shareholder, unless, among other conditions, the corporation’s common shareholders receive a minimum price (as described in the BCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested shareholder for its shares. A person is not an interested shareholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested shareholder. A corporation’s board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board.
REIT Qualification
Our certificate of incorporation, as amended, provides that our board of directors may authorize us to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our shareholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify to be taxed as a REIT.
Limitation on Directors’ Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers
The BCL permits a New York corporation to include in its certificate of incorporation a provision limiting the liability of its directors to the corporation and its shareholders for money damages, except if a judgment or other final adjudication establishes that (i) the director’s acts were committed in bad faith, (ii) involved intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) he personally gained a financial profit or other advantage to which he was not legally entitled or (iv) his act involves (A) the declaration of a dividend that violated section 510 of the BCL; (B) the purchase or redemption of shares of our capital shares in violation of section 513 of the BCL; (C) the distribution of assets to shareholders after dissolution without paying or adequately providing for the payment of all known liabilities; and (D) the making of loans to a director in violation of section 714 of the BCL.
The BCL permits us to indemnify any present or former director or officer, against judgments, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses including attorney’s fees actually and necessarily incurred as a result of the action or proceeding, including any appeals, if such director or officer acted, in good faith, for a purpose which he reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation and, in criminal actions or proceedings, in addition, had no reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was unlawful.
 
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In addition, the BCL permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such officer or director to repay such amount as, and to the extent, such officer or director is ultimately found not to be entitled to indemnification or, if entitled to indemnification, to the extent the amount advanced exceeds the indemnification to which such officer or director is entitled.
Our certificate of incorporation, as amended, and bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by New York law in effect from time to time, to indemnify, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, a proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity and any individual who, while a member of our board of directors and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, trustee or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity authorized by:

the board, acting by a quorum consisting of directors who are not parties to such action or proceeding upon a finding that the director or officer has met the standard of conduct set forth in the BCL; or

the board upon the opinion in writing of independent legal counsel that indemnification is proper in the circumstances because the applicable standard of conduct set forth in such sections has been met by such director or officer; or

shareholders upon a finding that the director or officer has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in such sections.
The indemnification and payment or reimbursement of expenses provided by the indemnification provisions of our certificate of incorporation, as amended, and bylaws are not deemed exclusive of or limit in any way other rights to which any person seeking indemnification or payment or reimbursement of expenses may be or may become entitled under any statute, bylaw, resolution, insurance, agreement, vote of shareholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling us pursuant to the foregoing provisions, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER OF CAPITAL STOCK
For us to qualify to be taxed as a REIT under the Code, our capital shares must be owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of twelve months or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to qualify to be taxed as a REIT has been made). Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our capital stock (after taking into account options to acquire shares of capital stock) may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities such as private foundations) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made). To qualify to be taxed as a REIT, we must satisfy other requirements as well.
Our certificate of incorporation, as amended, provides that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, beneficially or by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 4.99%, by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding capital stock. We refer to the person or entity that, but for operation of the ownership limits or another restriction on ownership and transfer of shares as described below, would beneficially own or constructively own shares of our capital stock in violation of such limits or restrictions and, if appropriate in the context, a person or entity that would have been the record owner of such shares as a “prohibited owner.”
The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause shares owned beneficially or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be deemed owned beneficially or
 
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constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, even if a shareholder’s actual ownership does not exceed the share ownership limits described, on a constructive ownership basis such shareholder may exceed those limits.
The ownership limits described above do not apply to our founders, Jeffrey C. Villano and John L. Villano, In addition, our board of directors, in its sole discretion, may exempt, prospectively or retroactively, a particular shareholder from the ownership limits or establish a different limit on ownership (the “excepted holder limit”) if we obtain representations and undertakings from such shareholders as are reasonably necessary for the board of directors to determine that such shareholder’s beneficial or constructive ownership of our shares will not result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify to be taxed as a REIT. Any violation or attempted violation of any such representations or undertakings will result in such shareholder’s shares being automatically transferred to a charitable trust. As a condition of granting the waiver or establishing the excepted holder limit, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or a ruling from the IRS, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to our board of directors, in its sole discretion, to determine or ensure our status as a REIT. Our board of directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with granting such a waiver or establishing an excepted holder limit.
In connection with granting a waiver of the ownership limits or creating an excepted holder limit or at any other time, our board of directors may from time to time increase or decrease the common share ownership limit, for all other persons, unless, after giving effect to such increase, five or fewer individuals could beneficially own, in the aggregate, more than 49.9% in value of our outstanding shares or we would otherwise fail to qualify to be taxed as a REIT. A reduced ownership limit will not apply to any person or entity whose percentage ownership of our common shares or our shares of all classes and series, as applicable, is, at the effective time of such reduction, in excess of such decreased ownership limit until such time as such person’s or entity’s percentage ownership of our common shares or our shares of all classes and series, as applicable, equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, but any further acquisition of our common shares or shares of other classes or series of our capital stock, as applicable, will violate the decreased ownership limit.
Considering these limitations, our certificate of incorporation, as amended, prohibits:

any person from beneficially or constructively owning, applying certain attribution rules of the Code, shares of our capital stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify to be taxed as a REIT;

any person from transferring shares of our capital stock if the transfer would result in shares of our capital stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code); and

any person from beneficially or constructively owning shares of our capital stock to the extent such ownership would result in our failing to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of Section 897(h)(4)(B) of the Code.
Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our capital stock that will or may violate the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of our capital stock described above, or who would have owned shares of our capital stock transferred to the trust as described below, must immediately give notice to us of such event or, in the case of an attempted or proposed transaction, give us at least 15 days’ prior written notice and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT. The foregoing restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of our capital stock will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify to be taxed as a REIT or that compliance with the restrictions and limits on ownership and transfer of shares of our capital stock described above is no longer required.
If any transfer of shares of our capital stock would result in such shares being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons, the transfer will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights
 
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in the shares. In addition, if any purported transfer of shares of our capital stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or an excepted holder limit established by our board of directors, or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify to be taxed as a REIT or as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of Section 897(h)(4)(B) of the Code, then that number of shares (rounded up to the nearest whole share) that would cause the violation will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us, and the intended transferee or other prohibited owner will acquire no rights in the shares. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violating transfer or other event that results in a transfer to the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent a violation of the applicable ownership limits or our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or our otherwise failing to qualify to be taxed as a REIT or as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” then the transfer of the shares will be null and void and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in such shares.
Shares of our capital stock held in the trust will be issued and outstanding shares. The prohibited owner will not benefit economically from ownership of any of our capital shares held in the trust and will have no rights to distributions and no rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares held in the trust. The trustee of the trust will exercise all voting rights and receive all distributions with respect to shares held in the trust for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary of the trust. Any distribution made before we discover that the shares have been transferred to a trust as described above must be repaid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand by us. Subject to New York law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will have the authority to rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner before our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust and to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary of the trust. However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.
Shares of our capital stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of  (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the market price at the time of such devise or gift) and (ii) the market price on the date we, or our designee, accepts such offer. We may reduce the amount so payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of any dividend or distribution that we made to the prohibited owner before we discovered that the shares had been automatically transferred to the trust, and we may pay the amount of any such reduction to the trustee for distribution to the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our capital shares held in the trust as discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates, and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner and must distribute any distributions held by the trustee with respect to such shares to the charitable beneficiary.
If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or entity designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits or the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of our capital shares. After the sale of the shares, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares transferred to the trust will terminate and the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of  (i) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the prohibited owner did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in the trust (for example, in the case of a gift, devise or other such transaction), the market price of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the trust) and (ii) the sales proceeds (net of any commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trust for the shares. The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of any distribution that we paid to the prohibited owner before we discovered that the shares had been automatically transferred to the trust and that are then owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee as described above. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner must be paid immediately to the charitable beneficiary, together with any distributions thereon. In addition, if, prior to the discovery by us that shares have been transferred to a trust, such shares
 
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are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount will be paid to the trustee upon demand. The prohibited owner has no rights in the shares held by the trustee.
In addition, if our board of directors determines that a transfer or other event has occurred that would violate the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of our stock described above, our board of directors may take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem the shares, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.
Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of shares of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give us written notice stating the shareholder’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our capital stock that the shareholder beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner must provide to us such additional information as we may request to determine the effect, if any, of the shareholder’s beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, any person or entity that is a beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our capital stock and any person or entity (including the shareholder of record) who is holding shares of our capital stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner must, on request, provide to us such information as we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits.
Certificates representing shares of our capital stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of our capital stock described above.
The restrictions on ownership and transfer of shares of our capital stock described above could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in control, including one that might involve a premium price for our common shares or otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders.
Our board of directors has granted three exemptions to the ownership limitation. One waiver was granted to an investment fund allowing it to purchase up to 9.9% of our outstanding common shares. However, under the constructive ownership rules applicable to REITs, for tax purposes, those shares will be deemed to be owned by the investors in the fund rather than a single shareholder. A second waiver was granted to an investment advisor and asset manager allowing it to purchase up to 9.9% of our outstanding common shares for the accounts of its clients. The third waiver was given to Brian Prinz, one of our independent directors who, following the completion of our IPO, was the constructive owner of more than 4.99% of our outstanding common shares. However, as a result of the follow-on offering in October-November 2017, Mr. Prinz’s constructive ownership of our outstanding shares has been reduced and no longer exceeds the 4.99% limitation. We are not aware of any shareholder, other than Jeffrey C. Villano and John L. Villano, owning more than 4.99% of our outstanding common shares for tax purposes or otherwise. Accordingly, we do not believe that there are five or fewer shareholders who currently own more than 50% of our outstanding shares and we have no intention of granting any further waivers to the ownership limitation. However, if one or more shareholders were to acquire a significant number of our shares without our knowledge, we may fail the diversified ownership requirement and, as a result, fail to qualify as a REIT. The ownership limitation provided for by our charter provides a mechanism by which we may be able to force a shareholder to reduce his, her or its interest if we know about it but it may not prevent them from acquiring shares in excess of the limit in the first place.
 
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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a general discussion of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations relating to our qualification and taxation as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”), and the acquisition, holding, and disposition of our common shares, our preferred shares, warrant to purchase our common shares or preferred shares, debt securities (including convertible securities) guarantees of our debt securities as well as units consisting of two or more of any of the foregoing classes of securities (collectively, “Securities”). For purposes of the following discussion, references to “our,” we,” and “us” means Sachem Capital Corp. as well as our subsidiaries and affiliates unless stated or the context implies otherwise. This discussion is based upon the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), the U.S. Treasury Regulations, rulings and other administrative interpretations and practices of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) (including administrative interpretations and practices expressed in private letter rulings which are binding on the IRS only with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings), and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect, and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. We have not sought and will not seek an advance ruling from the IRS regarding any matter discussed in this section. The discussion is also based upon the assumption that we will operate in accordance with our respective applicable organizational documents. This discussion is for general information only, and does not purport to discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be important to an investor in light of the particular investment strategies and goals or tax circumstances of such investor, or to investors subject to special tax rules, including:

financial institutions;

pass-through entities (such as entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes);

persons acting as nominees or otherwise not as beneficial owners;

insurance companies;

broker-dealers;

except to the extent described in the discussion below entitled “— Taxation of U.S. Shareholders — Taxation of Tax-Exempt Shareholders,” tax-exempt organizations;

dealers in securities or currencies;